Secularisation

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  • Causes of secularisation,from 1800 - 2000
    • Science
      • Darwin produced his 1859 thesis on evolution, signs now point towards the idea God did not create man,
      • Increased medical and technologicaldevelpement became better evidence that God could not save you.
      • In Berlin, intellectual criticisms of the bourgeois attracted the working class, who also began criticising the bible.
    • Political
      • Parties in power that want to avoid religion.
        • Nazism - Hitler turned the church into the Regime - largest number of priest resignations. One way of showing how the roles controlled by the church were now controlled by the state.
        • Communism - Athiest, does not believe in being controlled by the Church, but instead the state.
        • This lead to the lost of teachers of religion. Persecution in Soviet Union, Catholics in Mexico, Christians in Turkey.
        • French Revolution saw the first separation of Church and State.
    • Economics
      • Post War - Society becomes more affluent.  More disposable income. Greater leisure activities.
        • Meant parents would now prefer to spend time relaxing, cinema, TV etc, less time in church, children no longer at Sunday schools.
    • Mixing of cultures.
      • After WW2, the West was home to refugees, Jews from Germany, Chilean Socialists etc. Increased influence of other religions.
    • Rebellion - 1960s.
      • The introduction of the contraceptive pill, drugs, legalising abortion, led to the moral teachings of the bible being ignored. Did not believe in authority.
      • Feminism - It was down to the woman to provide the children with the necessary teachings of the church, to pass religion down the line.
        • Women refused - second wave feminism, also they had jobs, less time for bible reading with children.
      • Media, TV, magazines, music - spread the questioning of religion. Increased atheism - student counter culture - rebel against parents and state and parents expectations.
        • Wanted to experiment with religion - find for themselves which religion they wanted, eastern religions became fashionable. 'Spiritual' became to mean 'seeking for oneself'
    • Industrialisation
      • Industry broke up the village units.
      • Disrupted the transmission of traditional values.
      • It allowed for easy opt out of religion - were no longer subject to torment for not being religious.
      • People were no longer religious in public.
      • Working hours decreased - machinery and laws - people wanted to relax, not preach.
  • Mixing of cultures.
    • After WW2, the West was home to refugees, Jews from Germany, Chilean Socialists etc. Increased influence of other religions.

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