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  • Carbohydrates
    • Functions of carbohydrates in the diet
      • Provides energy for physical activity
      • Provides energy to maintain bodily functions
      • Provides dietary fibre to help digestion.
      • Sweetens and flavours food
    • If we eat more carbohydrates than we need for energy, the excess is stored as fat
    • Most common problems of excess carbohydrates in the body are related to obesity and tooth decay
    • Types of carbohydrates
      • They are divided into sugars and starches - simple and complex carbohydrates
    • Sugar and tooth decay
      • We eat sugars in different forms
        • Intrinsic sugars: found naturally in the cells of fruits and vegetables
        • Extrinsic sugars; those you can see (such as cane sugar) and are added to cakes, biscuits, desserts + sweets
      • Tooth decay is caused when the bacteria in your mouth (plaque) feeds on sucrose to produce an acid
        • The acid then causes small holes in your teeth (dental caries)
    • Complex carbohydrates (starch polysaccharides)
      • Starch is found in grain products such as bread rice cereals + pasta and in some fruits and vegetables
      • Starches take longer than sugars to digest and provide feeling  of fullness for longer, helping to avoid obesity
      • All starch comes from plant sources
    • Functions of starch in the diet
      • Broken down slowly into simple sugars by the digestive system to provide a slow release of enrgy
      • Adds bulk to our diet
      • Gives a feeling of fullness
      • The excess is converted to fat
    • Dietary Fibre (non starch polysaccharide)
      • Is the non digestible cellulose found in plant foods
      • Cannot be digested - it passes through the digestive system, absorbing moisture and providing bulk
      • We should be eating no less than 18g of fibre a day
    • Functions of dietary fibre
      • Holds water and keeps the faeces soft and bulky
      • Helps to push other food through the system and helps to clean the walls of the intestine of bacteria
      • Helps to prevent various bowel disorders
        • including constipation, bowel cancer, diverticular disease, appendicitis + haemorrhoids
      • Help people to control their body weight because high fibre foods are filling
      • Linked to lower blood cholesterol
  • Starches take longer than sugars to digest and provide feeling  of fullness for longer, helping to avoid obesity


jill richardson


Detailed mindmap includes the types, functions and problems associated with carbohydrates.

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