Canada - Migration Policies

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  • Canada - Immigration Policies
    • 1870 - 1918
      • The Open Door Policy
        • Development of Communcations
          • To create an integrated economy between the east (manufacturing) and west (agricultural) industries
          • Built the Transcontinental Railway
        • Immigration Act 1910
          • encouraged farmers and female domestic workers to settle in the west.
        • No restrictions on numbers.
        • Restrictive to the source of migrants.
          • Britain, USA, N.West Europe.
            • Not a sufficient number of migrants.
              • Rail Companies hired Chinese workers & paid tax her head for their employment.
          • Gave Canadian Government control over Racial Composition of migrants.
    • 1919 - 1929
      • Preferred/Non-Preferred Countries
        • Immigration become more selective.
          • Prospective migrants had a pass a literacy test.
          • The government separated prospective migrants into preferred and non-preferred countries.
            • Preferred:- Britain USA Australia New Zealand South Africa
              • Given financial assistance to aid move and settlement in Canada.
                • Empire Settlement Act 1922 - subsidised travel costs for British willing to settle west.
            • Non-Preferred:- Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Russia.
              • Exclusion Act 1923 prevented Chinese immigrants bringing family members with them.
              • Only admitted in Canada in times of need for the lowest paid jobs.
        • Government exercised tight controls over numbers of entries.
    • 1930 - 1945
      • The Closed Door Policy
        • Unemployment rose significantly & gov. stopped migration.
          • 'Family Reunion' category only - close Canadian relatives not wishing to enter labour market.
            • Only UK & USA.
    • 1946 - 1962
      • Increase the numbers of migrants.
        • Admitted from Eastern Europe, those escaping Communist regimes.
        • Immigration Act 1952 - reference to ethnic nature of immigrants.
      • More stringent selection process than before.
    • 1960 - 1986
      • Racial undertones of policy removed.
      • Attention focused on skills level rather than source country.
      • Immigration Act 1970s - Enrich & strengthen cultural & social fabric. - not discriminated on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion or sex.
      • Points System (no longer preferred/non-preferred).
    • 1986 - 1993
      • Migration no longer a short term solution but a long term demographic necessity.
        • Immigrants would readjust the overall age structure of the pop.
      • 1985- 85,000 1993-250,000 migrants.
      • Selection did still remain but greater emphasis given to skill level & entrepreneurs
    • 1993 - 2008
      • Migration seen as an essential requirement for demographic stability.
        • Annual target - 320,000 immigrants.
      • Points System modified - emphasis on technical & linguistic skills.

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