C4 - Chemical Patterns.

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  • Created by: dmistry02
  • Created on: 10-06-14 09:44
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  • C4 - Chemical Patterns.
    • Atoms
      • The Nucleas
        • middle of the atom
        • Consists of protons and neutrons
        • Positively charged
        • tiny compared to the rest of the atom
      • Electrons
        • around the nucleas
        • negatively charged
        • No mass
        • Arranged in shells
          • 2 is maximum on the first shell
          • 8 is maximum on other shells
      • Protons = Electrons.
      • Identifying Atoms
        • Elements emit colour when heated.
          • Lithium - Red
          • Potassium - Lilac (purple)
          • Sodium - yellow/orange
        • Line Spectrum
          • Due to electron arrangement.
          • Different wavelengths
          • shown through a spectroscope.
    • Periodic Table
      • History
        • Dobereiner
          • organised into triads (into 3's)
          • In order of atomic mass
          • Middle had the average atomic mass.
        • Newlands law
          • every 8th element had a similar property
          • Didnt leave gas for missing elements.
          • He mixed up metals and non-metals.
        • Mandeleev
          • In order of atomic mass but leaving gaps
          • used Dobereiner's and newlands law
      • Modern
        • Separates metals from non-metals
        • Arranges in groups and periods
          • groups
            • similar properties
            • how many electrons on the outer shell
            • columns
          • Periods
            • How many shells.
            • Reactivity
      • Group 1 - Alkali metals
        • One outer shell electron
        • shiny when freshly cut
        • More reactive as it goes down
          • energy needed to separate the electron from the atom
          • reaction with cold water produces hydrogen gas
          • Reaction with chlorine produces salt.
      • Group 7 - Halogens
        • 7 outer electrons
        • Non-metals
        • become less vigorous when going down the group.
          • Less energy is needed to gain the electron.
        • Reaction with alkaline metals produce metal halides
        • Produce halides - iron halide.
  • Ions
    • C4 - Chemical Patterns.
      • Atoms
        • The Nucleas
          • middle of the atom
          • Consists of protons and neutrons
          • Positively charged
          • tiny compared to the rest of the atom
        • Electrons
          • around the nucleas
          • negatively charged
          • No mass
          • Arranged in shells
            • 2 is maximum on the first shell
            • 8 is maximum on other shells
        • Protons = Electrons.
        • Identifying Atoms
          • Elements emit colour when heated.
            • Lithium - Red
            • Potassium - Lilac (purple)
            • Sodium - yellow/orange
          • Line Spectrum
            • Due to electron arrangement.
            • Different wavelengths
            • shown through a spectroscope.
      • Periodic Table
        • History
          • Dobereiner
            • organised into triads (into 3's)
            • In order of atomic mass
            • Middle had the average atomic mass.
          • Newlands law
            • every 8th element had a similar property
            • Didnt leave gas for missing elements.
            • He mixed up metals and non-metals.
          • Mandeleev
            • In order of atomic mass but leaving gaps
            • used Dobereiner's and newlands law
        • Modern
          • Separates metals from non-metals
          • Arranges in groups and periods
            • groups
              • similar properties
              • how many electrons on the outer shell
              • columns
            • Periods
              • How many shells.
              • Reactivity
        • Group 1 - Alkali metals
          • One outer shell electron
          • shiny when freshly cut
          • More reactive as it goes down
            • energy needed to separate the electron from the atom
            • reaction with cold water produces hydrogen gas
            • Reaction with chlorine produces salt.
        • Group 7 - Halogens
          • 7 outer electrons
          • Non-metals
          • become less vigorous when going down the group.
            • Less energy is needed to gain the electron.
          • Reaction with alkaline metals produce metal halides
          • Produce halides - iron halide.
    • Produces when gaining or losing an electron
    • They have charges
    • Ionic bonding
      • transferring electrons
      • bonding of 2 opposite charged ions
        • Group 1 reacts with Group 7
      • form a lattice
        • Each lattice forms a crystal
        • conduct when molten or dissolved
          • free electrons

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