GCSE: OCR gateway: C3: Batch and continuous + allotropes of carbon and nanaochemistry

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  • C3
    • Batch/ Continuous
      • Processing
        • Continuous
          • Large amounts of product 24 hrs a day, 7 days a week
          • In large plants with good transport links
          • Highly automated
            • Minimal labour costs
            • Makes product cheaper
          • Less energy to maintain as long as proccess is kept running
          • Disadvantages
            • Process inefficient if not in constant use
            • High initial building and setup cost
        • Batch
          • Fixed amount made
          • Batches can be made and stored until needed
          • Allows quantities to be made that can be sold within given sellby date
          • Easy to make new batch when needed
          • Easy to change production into different product
          • Disadavantages
            • Each batch has to be supervised
              • Labour intensive
              • Costly
            • Time needed for cleaning if product line is changed
            • Inefficient; production not in use all the time
      • Why are medicines expensive?
        • Takes 10 yrs to develop and test drug + each country has different laws on drugs
        • many compounds need to be made before one is useful to develop
        • Raw materials rare and costly
        • Many raw materials found in plants so are difficult to extract
        • Extracting chemicals from a plant
          • Crush plant to break cell walls
            • Boiling in sustanble solvents to dissolve compounds
              • Chromatography used to separate/identify different compounds
                • Isolating/ purifying/ testing potentially useful compounds
                • Thin layer chromatography used to test purity of compound by comparing it to the speed to movement of a known pure sample
      • Drug Development
        • Difficult and costly to licence drugs
          • Thosands of compounds tested before finding effective ones
          • Compounds need to be tested on living tissue to ensure safety
          • Long term trials on humans needed to find side effects
          • Many similar compounds developed to reduce side effects
          • Recommended doses need to be prooven effective
          • Research needs to be independently verified
    • Allotropes of Carbon and Nanochemistry
      • Allotropes
        • Different structures of same element
        • Fullerenes are carbon spherical/tubular structures
          • Uses
            • Carry and deliver drug molecules around the body
          • Buckmisterfull-erene =  C60
      • Why diamonds and graphite are useful
        • Diamonds
          • Every atom has strong covalent bonds
          • Hardest known substance
            • So good for cutting tools and jewellery
          • Have natural imperfections that form cleaving plates which allow them to be shaped
        • Graphite
          • Bonds make layers
          • Layers slide over one another and has high melting point
            • So good for pencils and high temperature lubricant
      • Explaining the properties of diamond and graphite
        • Diamond
          • No electrons so diamond does not conduct electricity
          • Covelent bonds make it hard and have a high melting point
          • Giant covelent bonding involves electron sharing; each C atom in diamond is covelently bonded to 4 others
            • This is done in a 3 dimentional tetrahedral lattice with all the outer electrons shared
        • Graphite
          • Each carbon atom bonded to 3 others in hexagonal layers
          • Properties
            • Covelent bonds make melting point similar to diamond
            • Delocalised electrons; cood conductor
            • When force is applied weak forces between layers slide over one another; slippery nature makes it a good lubricant
      • Giant molecular structures
        • Nanotubes used in catalyst systems; atoms of catalyst can be attached to large surface areas on nanotubes

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