BY4 - Microbiology

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  • BY4 - Microbiology
    • Obligate Aerobe
      • Micro-organisms that grow/divide in the presence of oxygen
    • Obligate Anaerobe
      • Micro-organisms that grow/divide in the absence of oxygen
    • Facultative Anaerobe
      • Micro-organisms that can grow/divide with or without oxygen
        • Aerobic respiration is more beneficial
    • Fermenters
      • AIM: To grow a culture of micro-organisms on a large scale to produce useful products.
      • Large stainless steel tank
      • Maximum efficiency is created by there being no competition from other organisms
      • Pure culture of an organism is needed to form and harvest a pure product
      • Controlled conditions
      • Penicillin Producion
        • Tank is sterilised and a pure culture of PENICILLIUM NOTATUM is added to a fermenter
        • Sterile nutrient medium is added to the tank through a filter.
          • Glucose is (carbon source) is added and needed for respiration.
          • Ammonia (nitrogen source) is used in protein synthesis
          • Nutrients and micro-organisms are mixed by stirrers/ paddles
        • Temperature is controlled by a cooling jacket
          • It also removes excess heat produced by respiration.
          • Monitored by a temperature probe
        • pH is controlled by a specific pH buffer from the acid/base reservoir
        • Forced aeration is needed for growth
          • Air comes out through a sparger
        • Culture fluid is filtered - mycelium is separated from penicillin
          • Penicillin is chemically purified to form the antibiotic


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