BY4 - Microbiology

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  • BY4 - Microbiology
    • The study of micro-organisms.
    • Classification of Micro-organisms
      • 4 main groups of micro-organisms:
        • Bacteria
        • Protoctista
        • Fungi
        • Viruses
      • Uses a variety of factors:
        • Shape
        • Metabolic reactions
        • Gram Stain experiment
      • Singular
        • Coccus
          • Spherical
        • Bacillus
          • Rod
        • Spirillum
          • Spiral
      • Plural
        • Diplobacilli
          • Streprobacilli
        • Spirilla
        • Diplococci
          • Streptococci
    • Gram Stain
      • Gram Negative
        • Gram negative bacteria have a thinner cell wall.
          • Made up of peptide-glycans.
          • Does not retain the crystal violet stain.
          • They have an outer layer of lipopoly-sccharides.
            • Does not retain crystal violet stain.
            • Lipids in the cell walls.
              • Crystal violet stain is insoluble in lipids.
                • A red counter stain - safranin - is used to stain gram negative bacteria.
        • Contain poly-peptide chains that have cross-linkages with other peptide chains.
        • Not affected by anti-bacterial enzymes (lysozymes).
          • Which come from human tears.
          • Resistant to penicillin and other antibiotics.

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