Burned bones - thesis

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  • Burned bones
    • Heat-induced (H-I) alterations
      • Colour change
        • Shipman et al (1984)
          • Occurs due to changes in type-1 collagen and residual carbon
            • < 500 C
              • Charring
                • Brown and black
            • > 900 C
              • Calcination
                • White, light grey and blue
            • Dependent on temperature, duration, oxygen, soft tissue, body positioning and fuel.
      • H-I trauma
        • Fractures
        • Shrinkage
        • Warping
        • Krogman (1939)
          • Occurs due to collagen and bone elasticity decrease
            • Dependent on temperature, exposure, duration, cooling and soft tissue.
      • Crystallinity
        • Thompson (2011; 2015)
          • Occurs due to changes in bones crystal structure
            • Dependent on temperature, duration, soft tissue, fuel and bone density.
    • Current methods
      • Laboratory
        • Furnaces, ovens and/or kilns
          • Focuses on temperature and duration
            • Does not consider the condition, exposure, positioning and/or cooling of bone.
            • An overly simplistic view, which suggests these are the only influencing dynamics
              • Does not reflect real-life scenarios
                • Does not consider the condition, exposure, positioning and/or cooling of bone.
          • Variables are controlled and ecological validity is reduced
        • Methods follow trends, which date back to 1984
      • Field
        • Very few
          • Mainly for cremation practices and the collapsing of funerary pyres
            • McKinley (1997; 2015)
          • This is expected due to difficulties in controlling variables
      • Methods focus on one variable and use a 'layering' method
        • Does not reflect real-life scenarios
    • Fire
      • Fire dynamics
        • Fuel
        • Ambient conditions
        • Structural dimensions
        • Oxygen availability
        • Cannot be replicated with standard furnace testing


Jeff P. Cameron


Thank you so much! I will try to use this technique for my writing. I will redo my current work using this example. I was going to buy thesis here https://paperell.com/buy-thesis, but I'm still going to give myself a chance to do it myself. I still have a lot of time. And this skill will come in handy in the future, and it seems to me.

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