Bonding

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  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 02-04-14 15:13
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  • Bonding
    • Giant ionic lattice
      • Ionic bonding
        • Strong electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ion
          • High melting point
            • Strong electrostatic force between ions so a lot of energy needed to break them
          • Dont conduct electricity when solid
            • Ions are fixed in a lattice and cannot move so a current cannot flow
          • Conduct electricity when molten or aqueous
            • Ions are free to move so a current can flow
          • Dissolve well in polar solvents e.g. water
            • Polar solvent molecules attract ions out of the lattice
          • Brittle
            • Ions are fixed in lattice so when pressure is applied ionic bonds break and they sanp
    • Macromolecular
      • Covalent bonding a shared pair of electrons between two atoms
        • Diamond
          • V. high melting point
            • All atoms joined by strong covalent bonds so a lot of energy needed to break
          • Extremely hard
            • All atoms joined by strong covalent bonds in 3 dimensions
          • Does not conduct electricity
            • Electrons are fixed in the covalent bonds so cannot move and a current cannot flow
        • Graphite
          • High melting point
            • All atoms in each layer are joined by strong covalent so al large amount of energy required to break them
          • Soft
            • Weak van der waals forces between layers allow layers to slide over each other
          • Conducts electricity
            • Delocalised electrons are free to move between layers so a current can flow
    • Simple molecular
      • Covalent bonding
        • Shared pair of electrons between two atoms
        • Iodine
          • Low melting point
            • Molecules in Crystal held together by weak inter molecular forces so small amount of energy required to break them
          • Dont conduct electricity
            • No free ions or electrons as they are fixed in covalent bond
      • Dative covalent
        • A covcovalent bond where both of the shared electrons are donated from one of the atoms
      • Polar bonds/dipoles
        • Electonegativity the ability of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons in a covalent bond
        • Van der Waals, dipole dipole, hydrogen
      • Bond angles
        • 2bp, 0lp Linear 180
        • 3bp, 0lp Triganol planer, 120
        • 4bp, 0lp Tetrahedral 109.5
        • 5bp, 0lp Triganol bipyramid 120 90
        • 6bo, 0lp Octrahedral, 90
        • 2bp, 1lp Angular, 117.5
        • 3bp, 1lp Pyramidal, 107
        • 4bp, 2lp Squar planer 90
        • 2bp, 2lp Bent 104.5

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