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  • Created by: Shannon
  • Created on: 05-03-14 17:35
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  • Bonding
    • Ionic
      • Metal + non-metal
      • Oppositely charged ions formed
        • Held together by electrostatic forces of attraction
          • Held in an arrangement known as a giant lattice structure
            • This simple arrangement maximises the forces of attraction between ions - minimising repulsion
        • Formed by either the loss (+ve ion) or gain (-ve ion) of electrons
      • Octet rule
        • Ions form with a full outer shell of electrons
          • Stability
      • Lattice energy
        • The formation of one mole of an ionic compound from gaseous ions under standard conditions
        • Affected by charge density
          • As the size of the ion increased, the lattice energy becomes less negative
            • In smaller ions, the cation is more polarising
        • Values are compared using Born-Haber cycles
    • Covalent
      • Electron sharing
        • In order to achieve full outer shell
        • Most evident in elements in the middle of the periodic table
          • Need to lose or gain several electrons - and this requires a lot of energy
      • Balance between attractive and repulsive forces
        • Electron density is shared
      • Dative covalent bonding
        • The electrons that make the bond come from the same atom
      • Arises due to strong electrostatic forces of attraction between nucleus and the electrons
      • Non-metal + non-metal
    • Metallic
      • Giant lattices of positive metal ions surrounded by a 'sea' of delocalised electrons
      • Strong forces of attraction between metal ions and delocalised electrons
      • Properties
        • Electrical conductivity
          • Delocalised electrons are free to move through the lattice
        • Thermal conductivity
          • Delocalised electrons can move easily, and so can transmit kinetic energy quickly through the lattice
        • High melting and boiling point
          • The strong attraction between the positive ions and negative electrons requires a lot of energy to separate


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