Biology: The Living Body

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  • Biology: the living body
    • bones and cartilage
      • skeleton advantages:easily grows, attach muscles, more flexible, framework
      • made from living cells so can repair
      • long bones are hollow
      • contain bone marrow which makes blood cells
      • made as cartilage
      • ossification turns cartilage into bone
      • dont move broken bones
    • joints and muscles
      • synovial joints are connected by ligaments
      • ends covered in cartilage
      • synovial fluid to lubricate
      • bones to muscles by tendons
      • antagonistic pairs
    • circulatory systems
      • away - arteries - towards - veins
      • humans need four chambered hearts
      • blood goes separately to body and lungs
    • the cardiac cycle and circulation
      • 1) blood flows into atria
      • 2) atria contract pushing blood into ventricles
      • 3) ventricles contract pushing blood into pulmonary artery
      • 4) cycle repeats again
      • claudius galen and william harvey
    • heart rate
      • sino atrial node contracts atria
      • atrio ventricular node contracts ventricles
      • ECG's show electrical activity
      • echocardiogram is an ultrasound
    • heart disease
      • hole in heart
      • valve damage
      • coronary heart disease
      • artificial parts can be used rather than transplants
    • blood clotting and transfusions
      • platelets help the blood clot
      • if different blood types are mixed can clump
    • transplants and organ donation
      • donors must: be young, have similar weight, close tissue match
      • donors must be alive or recently dead
      • the immune system may reject
      • immuno suppressive drugs help
      • there are some ethical issues
    • organ donation and organ replacement
      • problems: shortage or organs, shortage of donors, wrong criteria
      • mechanical replacements: heart lung machines, dialysis, ventilators
      • need constant power, large, cause inflamation
    • the respiratory system
      • muscles contract and one inspires
      • muscles relax and one expires
      • lung capacity can be measured with a spirometer
      • lungs usually contain 6 litres of oxygen
    • more on the respiratory system
      • gas exchange occurs in the alveoli
      • oxygen and carbon dioxide is diffused
      • alveoli have: large surface area, moist surface, permeable, thin, good blood supply
      • amphibians use skin for gas exchange
      • fish use gills for gas exchange
    • lung disease
      • cilia and mucus protect the lungs from infection
      • asbestos can cause diseae
      • cystic fibrosis is inherited
      • smoking can cause lung cancer
      • asthmatics lungs are very sensitive to things
    • digestion
      • large molecules are broken into smaller ones and absorbed
      • chemical digestion involves enzymes
      • charbohydrases break carbohydrates into simple sugars
      • proteases break proteins into amino acids
      • lipases break fats into fatty acids and glycerol
    • more on digestion
      • enzymes need optimum pH
      • bile made in the liver helps fat digestion
      • glucose and amino acids diffuse into blood plasma
      • small intestine has: big surface area, very long, permeable, has microvilli
    • the kidneys
      • remove urea, adjust salt levels, adjust water content in blood
      • blood is filtered in the kidneys
      • substances are reabsorbed: sugar, salt, water
      • waste products are emptied through urine
    • waste removal
      • hormones control amount of water absorbed
      • hormones are released accordingly
      • concentration of urine depends on, heat, exercise, water intake
      • dialysis filters blood mechanically
    • the menstrual cycle
      • 1) menstruation starts
      • 2) uterus lining builds up
      • 3) an egg is released
      • 4) the wall is maintained
      • controlled by: FSH, oestrogen, LH
    • controlling fertility
      • the pill contains oestrogen to prevent the release of an egg
      • sperm can be placed in the uterus
      • FSH injections to stimulate production
      • IVF to fertalise the egg outside of the body
      • ovary transplants if you dont have any
    • more on growth
      • influenced by diet
      • exercise can affect growth
      • some factors are inherited
      • people are now living longer




This was very useful thank-you :)




This has broke down all of the topics really well, BIG help! :)

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