Biology B2 Mindmap. Digestion/Cells/Exercise etc.

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  • Biology B2
    • Cells
      • Animal Cell : Nucleus , Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, Ribosomes
      • Plant Cell : Cell Membrane, Cell wall, Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Chloroplasts, Ribosomes, Mitochondria, Vacuole
      • NUCLEUS - Controls Cell / Contains gentic information. CELL MEMBRANE - Controls passage of substances of cell. CELL WALL - Made of Celluose / supports cell. CYTOPLASM - Liquid gel / chemical reactions take place. RIBOSOME - Protein synthesis / produces protein MITOCHONDRIA - O2 + C6H12O6 react to release energy CHLOROPLASTS - found in green parts of plants / contains chlrophyll. VACUOLE - filled w/ cell sap / supports plant
        • CELL MEMBRANE DIFFUSION - dissolved substances can move by diffusion. only very small molecules move thru. (oxygen, gluose, amino acids, water) STARCH + GLUCOSE CANT DIFFUSE THRU MEMBRANE.
      • DIFFUSION - when particles spread from hi. conc to low. conc area
        • FACTORS AFFECTING DIFFUSION - SA / Distance / Temperature
    • Digestion System
      • MOUTH - grinds food smaller / increases sa/ carbs broken down into glucose by enzyme called amylase. OESOPHEGUS - food travels down pipe. STOMACH - food is churned up with acid (HCI) pH 1-2. Breakes down protein. SMALL I - made up of duodenum / ileum. DUODENUM - fats broken down by bile + enzymes. ILEUM - nutrients from digested food passes thru wall 2 get 2 blood stream. LARGE I - water removed / forms solid material / faeces. RECTUM - faeces stored here. ANUS - food passes out here.
      • Distrubution
        • QUADRATS - to sample an area, you will need a quadrat. It should be placed RANDOMLY and you have to do this a number of times, this ensures the results are reliable.
          • TRANSECT A transect is a line across a habitat or part of a habitat. It can be as simple as a string or rope placed in a line on the ground. The number of organisms of each species can be observed and recorded at regular intervals along the transect
          • MEAN - Add the numbers together and divide the total by the amount of numbers
            • MEADIAN - The median is the middle number
            • MODE - Most common number
            • RANGE - Biggest number - smallest number
    • Plants
      • MAIN ORGANS OF PLANTS : STEM - transports water in plant / supports it. LEAVES - helps w/ p.synthesis / contains chlorophyll. ROOTS - absorbs water / provides anchor / used for storage
        • STRUCTURE OF LEAF : EPIDERMIS - transparent layer on top/ provides protection + prevents water loss. STOMATA - pores underneath leaf / allow co2 in / o2 out. SPONGY CELLS - layers of cells w/ air spaces. XYLEM - carries water from roots to leaves. PHLOEM - carries dissolved food up/down plant. VEIN - made up of phloem/xylem. GUARD CELL - controls open/close of stomata. PALLISADE - under epidermis / conatins lots of chloroplasts. WAXY CUTICLE - prevents water loss / protects leaf.
      • P.SYNTHESIS - process where plants make food (glucose) C02 + H20 > C6H1206 + 02
        • FACTORS AFFECTING P.SYNTHEIS : LIGHT INTENSITY / CO2 CONCENTRATION / TEMP
    • Excercise
      • AEROBIC - W/ O2. GLUCOSE + OXYGEN > CARBON DIOX + WATER + ENERGY
      • ANAEROBIC - WITHOUT O2. GLUCOSE > LACTIC ACID + ENERGY
        • Panting after exercise provides oxygen to break down lactic acid. The increased heart rate also allows lactic acid to be carried away by the blood to the liver, where it is broken down.
          • During hard exercise when anaerobic respiration occurs with aerobic respiration, an oxygen debt builds up. . This is because glucose is not broken down completely to form carbon dioxide and water. Some of it is broken down to form lactic acid
    • Enzymes
      • enzymes are proteins made up of amino acids. optimum pH is 7. Enzymes work best at 37 degrees. If temp to high, enzymes will be denatured

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