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  • Created by: mollie
  • Created on: 15-12-12 15:06
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  • Biology Yr9
    • Being Healthy
      • 7 Nutrients
        • 1.Carbohydrates 2.Protein 3.Fats 4.Vitamins 5.Minerals 6.Fibre/Roughage 7.Water
          • Carbohydrtes; the main suppliers of energy
          • Protein; for building muscles and makng enzymes
          • Fats; insulate the body and emergency energy supply
          • Water; keeps us hydrated
          • Vitamins; eg A, B, C, D, E, K-for good general health
          • Fibre/Roughage; exercise the intestines
          • Minerals; eg. iron, calcium- keep parts of the body strong and healthy
      • Malnutrition- consenquences of not having a balanced diet. Malnutrition can cause... Scurvy. obesity, anorexia, rickets, kwashiorkor and starvation.
      • Rate-how fast or slow
      • The rate/speed of all chemical reactions in the cells of the body is also known as the metabolic rate
    • Pathogens
      • Micro-organisms is a tiny organism that cannot be seen with the naked eye
      • 3 kinds of micro-organisms; Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses.
      • Pathogens is something that causes a disease.
      • Bacteria; -Food Poisoning -Sore Throat -Tuberculosis -Tetanus -Cholera -Typhoid -Whooping Cough -Bacterial Meningitis
      • Viruses; -Influenza(flu) -Mumps -Chicken Pox -Small Pox -Polio -Rabies -German Measles -Viral Meningtis
      • Fungi; -Fungal Sinusitis -Athlete's foot -Onychomycesis (cause discolour to nails)
      • Pathogens grow and reproduce very quickly. They double in number about every 20 minutes.
      • Where can microbes ener the body; -Eyes -Ears -Mouth -Nose -Skin -Genitals -Cuts
      • Bacteria produces toxins
      • White blood cells kill microbes
      • The white bloood cell produces antibodies
      • Antibiotics cannot be used to kill viral pathogens because they hide inside out body cells and they have a thick, strong, protein coating around them
      • Vaccine- A small amount of dead or weakened pathogen that stimulates antibodie production
    • The Nevous System
      • The nevous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord and nerve cells
      • There are two sorts of nerve cells. The first group are the sensory nerve cells that start at the sense organs. The second are the motor nerve cells that start at the brain or spinal cord and go to out muscles or glands
      • The central nervous system (CNS) is made up of the brain and spinal cord
      • Sensory nerve transfer electrical signals from sense organs to CNS
      • Motor nerve sends electrical signals from CNS to muscles and glands
      • Hormones secreted by special glands, are chemicals that help control and coordinate processes in your body
      • The nervous system uses electrical impulses to enable you to react to your surrounding and coordinates whar you do
    • Reflex Actions
      • Some responses to stimuli are automatic and rapid and are called reflex actions
      • Reflex actions help you to advoid danger
      • A reflex action is something that our body does in response to a stimulus BUT we do not think about the action we take it is automatic
      • 1.Stimulus is detected by receptors 2.Signal travels along sensory neurone 3.Signal passes from sensory neurone to relay neurone 4.Signal passes from relay neurone to motor neurone 5.Signal reaches muscle (or gland) 6.Muscle responds (or gland releases chemicals)
      • Stimuli-Stimulus=The cause-What caused the reflex action
      • Synapse= Gap between both neurones
    • Homeostatis
      • Comes from two Greek words; Homeo: Like/Similar and Statis: State/Condidtion
      • The process of keeping things the same
      • Vasodilation -Widening of the blood vessels in the skin in order to increase heat loss.
      • Vasoconstriction -Narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin in order to reduce heat loss
      • Depaecation- passing through faeces
      • Mineral ions/salts the body needs: Calcium, iron, sodium, potassium
      • Ions are needed for our nerounes to carry impulses and for our kindneys to work well
    • Control by Hormones
      • Hormones are special chemicals made by glands and are found in different places around the body
      • Pituitary Gland=Growth hormone. Function=Released under influence of hypothalamic growth hormone.
      • Thyroid Gland=Thyroid stimulating hormone. Function=Released under influence of hypothalamic thyrotroping releasing hormone.
      • Pancreas Gland=Endroine. Function=This gland is an integrel part of the digestive system.
      • All hormones are carried around the body by the blood but each one will only affect specific body parts called target organs
      • Pituitary gland-FSH=Follicle Stimulating Hormone -LH=Lutieinizing Hormone
      • Infertility- The inability to concieve and have babies.
      • Fertilty-(Opposite to infertility)
      • In males, the testes produce the hormone called testosterone.
      • In females, the ovaries produce oestrogen
      • Male Secondary Characteristics: -Voice Deepens -Facial hair grows -Gets more muscalur -Penis gets larger -Pubic hair grows -Sperms are produced
      • Female Secondary Characteristics: -Periods Start -Hips widen -Thighs get fatter -Breasts grow -Eggs are released -Pubic hair grows
      • The Pituitary Gland produces FSH and sends it to the Ovary when the Ovary has had enough FSH the Ovary sends Oestrogen to the Pituitary Gland telling it to stop producing FSH, instead it produces LH
    • Control in Plants
      • When a plant grows towards the light, it is photosynthesis -phototropism
      • Roots grow in the direction of gravity plants grow opposite to the direction of gravity -gravitropism -plant grows down
      • Plants cannot see the light but can sense it.
      • Plants need light so they can grow and they can photosynthisis
      • Plants also need water so they can photosynthisis
      • All roots grow downwards, but in the process of gravitropism the plant as well as the roots grow downwards
      • Hydrotropism is the growth of plant roots towards moisture
      • Auxin is destroyed by light
      • Auxin encourages shoot/stem cells to grow
      • Auxin discourages the growth of root cells
      • Auxin is made at the shoot tip of plants. From here it moves down the stem towards the roots
      • Auxin will  normally make the shoot cells grow larger so the overall effect would be to have a longer stem.
      • The overall effect is that the shoot tuns towards the light because the BRIGHTER SIDE HAS SLOWED DOWN in growth and the darker side has carried on growing.
      • AUXIN DOES NOT LIKE SUN!
      • What good effect(s) does light have on the shoots? -It has time to photosynthisis -It is thicker(stem) -Leaves are larger

Comments

lwood7

Wow! This must have taken ages!!!!!!!!!

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