Psychology

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  • Social Psychology
    • Conformity
      • Types
        • Compliance - going along with the majority to fit in.
        • Internalisation - changing your belief to the majorities.
      • Studies.
        • Asch's line study (1951) - conformity on an unambiguous task - normative social influence.
        • Sherif's conformity and the autokinetic effect (1935) - effects of informational influence.
        • Zimbardo's prison experiment (1973) - conformity to assigned roles
        • Moscovici (1969) - minority influence - minorities can influence the majorities.
          • Supported by civil rights movement in USA, the suffragettes and the gay rights movement.
      • Factors that affect conformity
        • Group size - smaller majorities are easier to resist than bigger ones.
        • Social support - if someone else agrees with you, its easier to resist conformity.
        • Confidence - more confident people are less likely to conform/resist group pressure.
        • Gender - studies show women prefer harmony in groups so may be more likely to conform than men, who want to be independent.
        • Personality
          • Internal locus of control - what happens in your life results from your own actions. - more likely to exhibit independent behaviour.
          • External locus of control - events are caused by external factors e.g luck. - more likely to conform.
    • Obedience to Authority
      • Studies
        • Milgram (1963) - electric shock experiment
        • Hofling et al (1966) - obedience in nurses
    • Individual differences.

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