biological explanation of gender

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  • Biological Influences - Genes and Hormones
    • Genetics
      • kleinfelters syndrome
        • Chromosome pattern of XXY instead of usual XY in males
        • characteristics
          • taller than usual
          • larger breasts
          • usually infertile
          • shyer and more placid than usual men
      • Money - David Reimer
        • born as a boy but raised as a girl after his penis was destroyed during circumcism
          • Money reported gender reassignment as successful
        • never felt in the right body and preferred to be like his brother
          • failed to live as a female bertween ages f 9 - 11 and by age of 15 began to live life as a male
            • committed suicide at the age of 38
    • Hormones
      • Gorski
        • unborn female  rats exposed to male hormones in utero
          • this led to the rats being more aggressive, showing boy boyish characteristics
            • Scientific, shows cause and effect however its a animal study so may not be generalised towards humans
      • Money
        • girls overexposed to male hormones in utero due to antisickness drug
          • showed more tomboyish behaviours
            • however, due to judgement which is unreliable as researched through interviews where leading questions may be used. only show a correlation
      • Quadagon
        • female monkeys given male hormones in womb.
          • when born play was more rough than other females + were also more aggressive
    • Brain Differences
      • differences can be seen in size and function of the hypothalamus
        • Swaab -'sexually dimorphic nucleus' in the hypothalamus
          • analysed 13 men, 18 women, aged between 10 - 93
            • found that the volume of the 'sexually dimorphic nucleus' is 2.5 times larger in men
      • young - rat study
        • female rats given male hormones
          • found the  'sexually dimorphic nucleus' to be larger than unaffected female rats
      • study found that when carrying out a language based task, women use both sides of the brain where as men only use one side
    • correlation studies
      • Deady


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