Biological Explanations (Gender)

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  • Biological Explanations
    • Gender is a result of chromosomes, hormones and physiology.
      • Sex and Gender are inter-related
        • Sex and Gender are determined at conception
        • Men are born masculine and women are born feminine
    • Chromosomes
      • Chromosomal patterns determine sex of a person
        • Typical Chromosome Patterns
          • Male - XY
            • Y chromosome causes gonads to develop into testes and not ovaries
          • Female - XX
          • Determine the percentage of hormones produced within the person
        • Atypical Chromosome Patterns
          • Turner's Syndrome
            • XO
            • No ovaries or breast development
            • High verbal, low spatial abilities
            • Female sex identity
          • Klinefelter's Syndrome
            • XXY
            • Underdeveloped Genitals
            • Lack of sexual interest
            • Male sex identity
    • Hormones
      • Determine the percentage of hormones produced within the person
      • Results in development of sex organs and gender specific behaviour
        • Male Hormone is testosterone
          • Males display masculine, gender appropriate behaviour due to hormones
        • Female hormone is oestrogen
          • Females develop feminine gender identities due to hormone
            • Display more nurturing and caring behaviour
          • Rise behavioural effects associated with PMT such as irritability and tearfulness
        • Van Goozen Study
          • Study of individuals of both sexes undergoing sex canges
            • Injected with opposite sex hormone
              • Male-to-female displayed decrease in aggression, decrease in visual-spatial skills and a better verbal fluency
                • Female-to-male was opposite
                  • Hormones can change masculinity and femininity or individuals
                    • Male-to-female displayed decrease in aggression, decrease in visual-spatial skills and a better verbal fluency
                      • Female-to-male was opposite
                        • Hormones can change masculinity and femininity or individuals

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