Biological molecules

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  • Biological molecules
    • chemical elements
      • all biological molecules contain CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN.
        • so carbohydrates and lipids just contain this
          • however proteins also contain SULPHUR, NITROGEN, (PHOSPOROUS)
    • molecule structure
      • they are all large (complex) molecules made up from smaller basic units (molecules):
        • (carbohydrates) starch and glycogen from simple sugar (glucose)
        • protein from amino acid
        • lipid from fatty acids and glycerol
    • tests
      • test for glucose: heat substance with Benedict's Solution. Goes from green solution to orange/red precipitate if glucose is present.
      • test for starch: add iodine to substance that is being tested. Goes from brown to blue/black if starch is present.
    • enzymes are biological catalysts in metabolic reactions
      • CATALYST: speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up.
      • METABOLIC: chemical reactions that take place in the body.
      • SO basically: enzymes speed up the rate of chemical reactions
      • ( Enzymes are produced by cells. their function is to convert substances into products. they are proteins. they can be recycled).
    • the active site in an enzyme. How changes in Ph cause changes to the enzyme. How enzyme activity can be affected by changes in temperature.
      • info on separate page


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