Biological Explanations for Gender Identity Disorder

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  • Biological explanations of GID
    • Genes
      • Hare et al.
        • Looked at the DNA of 112 MtF trans women, finding that they were more likely to have the angrogen receptor gene - the gene that codes for the increased uptake of testosterone - than controls
          • The abnormality led to a decrease in the re-uptake of testosterone
      • AO3
        • Social Sensitivity
          • The discovery of such a gene can lead to screening and therefore the erasure of trans people prior to birth
        • Reductionism
          • Reduces GID to genetic factors, ignoring the influence of environmental factors
        • Correlation not causation
          • The study by Hare finds a correlation (without a coefficient of 1) and attempts to claim causation, which is incorrect.
      • Heylens
        • In MZ twins there was a 39% concordance rate in the presence of GID compared with 0% in DZ twins
          • Not 100% concordance
    • Brain-Sex Theory
      • Zhou et al.
        • Found that the mass of the BSTc (typically 40% larger in men) in MtF trans was significantly smaller - similar to a woman
          • BSTc - Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis
      • Kruijiver et al.
        • Found that in 6 trans people, the number of neurones in the BSTc matched the average of the reverse sex found in cisgendered controls.
          • Small sample - cannot be generalised
    • Environmental Toxicity
      • DDT
        • DDT (the pesticide from the 70s) contained oestrogens and there is a theory that when airbourne, this leads to improper development in the womb
      • Vruegdenhill
        • Boys born to mothers who had been exposed to dioxins (toxic chemical compounds) showed feminised play styles.
          • Inferential

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