Behaviourist approach

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  • Created by: kenno23
  • Created on: 18-03-14 18:06
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  • Behaviourist approach
    • External observable behaviour
      • The Behaviourists are only interested in EOB as this is what they can see on the outside of the body. Anything else is considered as unscientific. This means they reject the work of the biological and cognitive approach.
    • Blank slate
      • They believe that we do not inherit any psychological attribute such as personality. They are all learnt through conditioning and experience
    • Nurture
      • They are strongly on the side of nurture and believe that all of our characteristics are learnt
    • Animals in research
      • The behaviourists believe that we can find things out about human behaviour through animal research. Other approaches such as the humanists would argue that we cant take research done on animals and generalise it to humans as we are qualitatively different
    • classical conditioning
      • This is were an automatic association is made with a stimulus and a response
      • Pavlov classic conditioned a Dog to relate the sound of a bell with being fed. eventually every time that the dog heard the bell on its own it would salivate which it would usually do when presented the food.
    • Watson and Raynors little Albert
      • 11 month old little albert was shown a white rat of which he had no fear. He was then presented with the white rat and a loud noise. After this was repeated a few times Albert was scared of the rat on its own, showing that behaviour can be learnt
    • Operant conditioning
      • Skinner believed that behaviour could be stamped in and stamped out through positive and negative reinforcers and punishments. A positive reinforce will stamp a behaviour in. This is a reward. A negative reinforcer is the removal of anything unpleasant in order to increase the frequency of the response. A punishment stamps out any negative behaviour
      • Williams and Best operantly conditioned a 21 month old child to stop having tantrum,s. Every time the child cried the parents didn't respond. This is avoiding reinforcement. they concluded that operant conditioning can be used to change behaviour


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