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  • B4- The processes of life
    • MRS GREN
      • Movement
      • Respiration
      • Sense
      • Reproduce
      • Grow
      • Excrete
      • Nutrition
    • Enzymes
      • Enzymes are catalysts
      • Proteins made up of amino acids
        • Cause different shapes
      • Lock and key theory
        • Only correct molecules fit into active site
      • Break down big molecules or join small ones jogether
      • At 37 degrees reactions happen too slowly so need enzymes
      • Temp/ pH not right enzyme becomes denatured
    • Photosynthesis
      • 6CO2 + 6H2O--> C6H12O6 + 6O2 (light energy and chlorophyll on arrow)
      • Takes place in chloroplasts
        • Where chlorophyll absorbs light and uses energy to fuel reaction
      • Glucose produced is used for:
        • Making other chemicals needed for plant growth
        • Storing energy in starch molecules
        • Releasing energy in respiration
    • Diffusion and gas exchange
      • Diffusion
        • Molecules in gases and liquids move randomly
          • Collide and change direction
        • Diffuse from high concentration to low concentration
      • Gas exchange
        • CO2 enter through stomata and oxygen goes out
    • Osmosis
      • Moving water molecules in and out of cells
      • Specific type of diffussion
      • Partially permeable membrane only lets smaller molecules through
      • Flow of water from dilute to concentrated
      • Osmosis drives the uptake of water for plants
    • Active transport
      • Nitrate ions absorbed by root hair cells in plants
      • Pump nitrates from soil into roots
      • Cells transport molecules through the membrane
    • Limiting factors- photosynthesis
      • Light
        • Increase in light= increase in reaction rate
      • CO2
        • More CO2 to react
    • Respiration
      • Aerobic
        • C6H12O6+ 6O2 -->6CO2 +6H2O
      • Anaerobic
        • Glucose---> lactic acid
        • When cannot supply oxygen quick enough
        • n plants it produces ethanol = CO2
    • Bioethanol
      • From sugar
      • Can be used in cars
      • Yeast converts sugar into ethanol
    • Biogas
      • Obtained from animal manure or human waste
      • Used to heat buildings
      • Bacteria break down the matter to make methane


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