Chemistry 1.1

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  • Atoms, Elements, The Periodic Table, Compounds, Limestone
    • Atoms
      • Everything made from them.
      • Only seen by extremely strong microscope
      • Small nucleus, surrounded by electrons
      • Nucleus at centre containing protons and neutrons
        • Protons = +
        • Neutrons = 0
        • Electrons = -
        • Neucleus has overall positive charge due to protons
      • Electrons
        • Move around nucleus
        • Charge = -
        • Occupy shells around nucleus
          • First shell can hold 2 electrons
          • Second and third shells hold 8 electrons each
      • HAVE NO OVERALL CHARGE
      • No. of protons = No. of electrons
      • If some electrons are added or removed, the atom becomes charged and is then an ION
      • No. of protons decides what type of atom it is
    • The Periodic Table
      • Atoms represented by symbols
      • Elements with similar properties form columns
      • Columns = Groups
      • All elements in a group have same No. of electrons in outer shell
      • Noble gases = Group 8 = Unreactive and stable
      • Elements
        • Top No. = MASS NUMBER The total No. of protons and neutrons
        • Bottom No. = ATOMIC NUMBER. The No. of protons = No. of electrons.
    • Compounds
      • Elements + other elements = compunds
      • COVALENT BONDS = SHARE ELECTRONS
        • Compound formed from from non-metals
        • MOLECULES
      • IONIC BONDS = ELECTRONS LOST/ GAINED
        • Compound formed from metal and non-metal
        • IONS
        • Metal atoms lose electrons = POSITIVE IONS
        • Non-metal gains electrons = NEGATIVE IONS
        • OPPOSITE CHARGES = STRONG BONDS
      • Carbon + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide
    • LIMESTONE
      • Limestone = mainly calcium carbonate
        • CaCO3
          • Heating = Thermal decomposition
            • CaO (+ heat) makes CaO + CO2
              • ( Calcium Carbonate + heat makes Calcium Oxide + Carbon Dioxide )
            • Mg, Zn, Cu and Na carbonates decompose in the same way
        • Acid Rain
          • Calcium Carbonate + Sulphuric Acid makes Calcium Sulphate + Carbon Dioxide + Water
            • Limestone is damaged by acid rain

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