Atoms & Ionising Radiation

AQA Seperate Science - Physics: 2B - Electricity and the Atom

Mindmap Covering:

  • Isotopes
  • Radioactivity
  • Background Radiation
  • Alpha radiation
  • Beta radiation
  • Gamma rtadiation
  • Radiation Dose




  • Magnetic Fields in radiation
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  • Created by: Ellie
  • Created on: 17-04-14 10:23
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  • Atoms and Ionising Radiation
    • Isotopes
      • Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
        • This means they have the same atomic number but a different mass number
          • Atomic Number is the number of protons in an atom
          • Mass Number is the number of protons + the number of neutrons in an atom
      • Most elements have different isotopes
        • Some isotopes are more stable than others
          • The unstable isotopes tend to be radioactive
            • This means they decay into other elements and give out radiation
    • Radioactivity
      • Radioactive substances give out radiation from the nuclei of their atoms
      • Random process
      • Unaffected by physical conditions e.g: Temperature or chemical bonding
      • Radioactive substances spit out ether Gamma, Beta or Alpha Radiation
    • Background Radiation
      • Present at all times
      • Naturally occuring
        • Unstable isotopes
          • Food, air, building materials, rocks
      • From Space
        • Cosmic Rays
          • The Sun
      • Man Made sources
        • Fall out from nuclear weapons tests, Nuclear waste and nuclear accidents
    • 3 Types of radiation
      • Alpha Particles (?)
        • Two Neutrons & Two protons
          • Positive Charge
        • Big, heavy and slow moving
        • Dont penetrate very far and are stopped quickly in air
        • Strongly ionising
        • Get deflected through magnetic fields
      • Beta Particles (?)
        • Electrons
        • Move quite fast and are quite small
        • Have a long range in air and penetrate moderately
        • Moderately ionising
        • For every ? particle emitted a neutron turns to a proton in the nucleus
        • Charge of -1
        • Get deflected through magnetic fields the opposite way to an alpha particle
      • Gamma Rays
        • Penetrate far into materials
        • Pass straight through air
        • Weakly ionising
    • Radiation Dose depends on Location and occupation
      • Location
        • Certain areas of the UK have higher amounts of radiation because of underground rocks
      • Occupation
        • Nuclear industry workers & Uranium miners
          • Exposed to 10 times as much radiation
            • Wear protective clothing & face masks
        • Radiographers
          • Use ionising radiation
            • Wear protective clothing & face masks
        • pilots
          • at  high altitudes background radiation increases
        • Miners
          • Radiation in rocks


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