- Arts and crafts movement
- Inspired by socialist principles and led by William Morris.
- Now called a reform movement, because it was closely associated with the anti-industrial movement.
- William Morris' philosophy revolved around around a love of simple design inspired by the middle ages.
- Proposed the reform of commercial art in order to manufacture well designed and well crafted consumer goods.
- The arts and crafts movement promoted the idea of handcrafted products as being superior to industrial ones.
- Created a demand for simplicity of design and fitness for purpose.
- Important influence on Art Nouveau, Scandinavian and UK design. Form of basis of modern design in Europe.
- Morris drew his inspirations from the flowing shapes of nature and interpreted them as repeat prints for wallpaper and textiles.