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  • Aristotle
    • Prime Mover
      • "An immortal unchanging being"
      • There must be a start of movement, a first cause in this impermanent world.
      • Indestructible
      • Eternal
      • Unmovable
      • Ultimate cause of the universe
      • Unmoved Mover=Prime Mover=God
      • Eternal Substance
      • Exists necessarily
      • Immune to change, Decay and Death
      • There must be common source that was responsible for the beginning of everything
      • If there wasn't an ultimate cause, there would be no chain of causes, therefore, nothing would come into existence.
      • Potentiality to actuality.
        • Everything has the ability to change
        • The only thing without potentiality is God.
          • He is pure actuality because he is simple, eternal and perfect.
      • Like a magnet, draws other things towards it.
      • Teleological cause of the universe
      • Necessary being
    • Four Causes
      • Material Cause
        • Refers to the matter of substance that something is made from.
          • Bees-Skin, Blood, Fur, Organs.
      • Formal Cause
        • Refers to what gives the matter its 'form' or 'structure'.
          • Bees-Black and Yellow, Buzz.
      • Efficient Cause
        • Refers to the cause of an object or thing existing, why things exist.
          • Bees-God, Evolution, Reproduction.
      • Final Cause
        • Reason why something is the way it is
          • Bees-To make honey, Pollinate.
    • Student of Plato
    • Relied on his senses(Empiricist)
    • Focused on natural world, not spiritual
    • Focused on categorising thigns
    • Two questions-'Where/how do things come to be?' and 'Why do things come to be?'
    • 382-22BCE
    • Eudaimonia
      • Greek word- Commonly translated to happiness(human flourishing)
      • Supreme goal of human life
      • "We become builders by building"
      • In order to reach eudemonia, we must be virtuous people
      • Relates to the final cause.


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