Aristotle

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  • Aristotle
    • 4 causes
      • Material = the matter/ substance of the object [book is made of paper]
      • Formal = what gives the object its form [the paper is put together in a certain way]
      • Efficient = what caused it to come into existence [author and then it was printed]
      • Final cause = reason why it is the way it is, purpose [book to read]
        • Prime mover
          • Prime mover is the final cause of everything
          • Everything is in a state of motion, change is always caused by something else, everything is in a state of potentiality and actuality
            • Something that causes all motion and change must be eternal and unmoved = prime mover
            • What was meant by potentiality and actuality was that a cup of hot coffee is actually hot but potentially cold and whilst a child is actually a child, they are potentiality an adult
              • The prime mover is pure actuality with no potential to change, he is immutable, he is not lacking quality, he is purely good
          • The prime mover existence is necessary - he cannot fail to exist
    • Prime mover
      • Prime mover is the final cause of everything
      • Everything is in a state of motion, change is always caused by something else, everything is in a state of potentiality and actuality
        • Something that causes all motion and change must be eternal and unmoved = prime mover
        • What was meant by potentiality and actuality was that a cup of hot coffee is actually hot but potentially cold and whilst a child is actually a child, they are potentiality an adult
          • The prime mover is pure actuality with no potential to change, he is immutable, he is not lacking quality, he is purely good
      • The prime mover existence is necessary - he cannot fail to exist
    • Plato
      • Although Aristotle appreciated the teachings from Plato, he rejected the Forms as Aristotle focused on the physical world and empirical evidence
      • Aristotle rejected the forms and on reason was the relationship between the forms and objects in the physical world were never really made
      • Aristotle rejects a dualist view of the world and Plato's understanding of the soul
    • God
      • For Aristotle, the prime mover is God, God is pure actuality
      • The prime mover is the leader and order within the universe
      • The prime mover is impersonal and does not act in the world but is instead transcendent and eternal - big difference with God of classical theism
    • Issues
      • There doesn't have to be a final cause, the universe could just be there with no real cause or purpose
      • The relationship between the prime mover and the universe is unclear, whilst the prime mover is seen as transcendent
      • Cannot be completely like God because God is said to act in the world and people experience him

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