are there universal human rights? 

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  • are there universal human rights?
    • the concept of human rights
      • H/R are rights inherent to all human beings
        • what ever our  nationality
        • place of residence
        • national or ethnic origin
        • colour, religion
        • language or any other status
    • UDHR 1948
      • some of the most important rights of the UDHR
        • Article 2
          • everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this declaration
            • this is important as it means we are all entitled to our righs no matter what
      • concept of universal H/R developed after WW2
      • 48 states voted to adopt
      • •None voted against, eight abstained.
      • problem
        • UDHR is not legally binding
    • other human rights treaties
      • •UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989
      • •UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment 1984
      • All States have ratified at least one,
        • 80% of States have ratified four or more, of the core human rights treaties
          • •reflecting consent of States which creates legal obligations for them and giving concrete expression to universality.
    • ECH
      • created in the aftermath of the Second World War
      • forms the basis of the rights found in the Human Rights Act 1998.
      • it has now been signed by 45 european countries
        • UK singed in 1951
          • did not make part of our national law until 200
            • if a citizen believed his/her rights had been infringed
              • they had to issue proceedings before the ECHR
      • 3 rights from the ECH
        • everyone has the right to life
        • freedom of expression
        • everyone is will be presumed innocent until proven guilty
    • Universalism v Cultural relativism?  France’s decision to ban the Burqa
      • Article 18.
      • Article 19.
  • •None voted against, eight abstained.

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