are linked and interdependent. • The ways in which the two cycles link and are interdependent via oceans, atmosphere, cryosphere and vegetation.

  • Created by: EmilyM17
  • Created on: 22-05-19 10:35
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  • The ways in which the two cycles link and are interdependent via oceans, atmosphere, cryosphere and vegetation.
    • Atmosphere
      • Atmospheric CO2 has a greenhouse effect
        • CO2 plays a role in the photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and phytoplankton
          • Plants, which are important carbon stores, extract water from the soil and transpire it as part of the water cycle.
            • Water is evaporated from the oceans to the atmosphere, and CO2 us exchanged between the stores
    • Oceans
      • Ocean acidity increases when exchanges of CO2 are not in balance
        • The solubility of CO2 in the oceans increases with lower SST
          • Atmospheric CO2 levels influence: SSTs and the thermal expansion of the oceans; air temperatures; the melting of ice sheets glaciers; and sea level
    • Cryosphere
      • CO2 levels in the atmosphere determine the intensity of the greenhouse effect and the melting of ice sheets, glaciers, sea ice and permafrost
        • Melting exposes land and sea surfaces which absorb more solar radiation and raise temperatures further
          • Permafrost melting exposes organic material to oxidation and decomposition which releases CO2 and CH4
            • Run-off, river flow and evaporation respond to temperature change
    • Vegetation and Soils
      • Water availability influences the rates of photosynthesis, NPP, inputs of organic litter to soils and transpiration
        • The water-storage capacity of soils increases with organic content
          • Temperatures and rainfall affect decomposition rates and the release of CO2 into the atmosphere

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