Assumptions of all approaches

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  • Created by: Emma
  • Created on: 09-05-13 17:41
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  • Approaches
    • Cognitive
      • Uses the computer as an analogy of the mind
        • The computer has information inputs, processing, retrieval and output which is similar to the fnctions of the mind
      • Behaviour is the result of informatrion processing
      • Atypical behaviour such as phobias or obsessive compulsive disorder is the result of faulty processin
    • Biological
      • Our genetic inheritance and gentic make-up affects our behaviour
      • Peoples behaviour is caused by electrochemical events occuring between the neurons of the brain
      • Behaviour also has ab=n evolutionary aspect and as explanied by Darwin could be the result of evolution
      • The sructural differences in the brain and different brain areas are also important in behaviour
      • Chemical processes in the brain are responsible for behaviour
    • Behaviourist
      • All behaviour is the result of a response to a stimulus
      • What we do is determined by the enviroment we live in
      • People are born with only a handful of innate reflexes and all of a person's complex behaviour is the result of learning through the enviroment in which they are raised and live in
      • The process of learning is common to all species so they generalise from humans to animals and vice versa
    • Humanistic
      • Maslows heirachy of needs that lead to self actulization
        • Starts with psychological needs (hunger,thirst)
          • Then goes to safety needs (shelter)
            • Then belonging needs (love, freindship)
              • The esteem needs and finally self actulization
      • Everyone percieve's the world in their own way and so will act in a way they believe to be correct
      • People have free will and can choose their own actions (but they may not realize this)
      • Rogers concept of positive self regard.
        • People can only fufill their potential of positive growth if they are loved and valued or respected y others
          • But most people do not feel they have unconditional positve regard and that they must meet other peoples condition of worth eg. behaving well, passing exams etc
    • Social Learning Theory
      • Behaviour is the result of observation
      • People are shaped in fundemental ways by their environment through learning processes
      • They believe people learn by watching others, so other people are of great influence of behvaiour
      • Operant and classical conditiong are key aspects of both these approaches
        • Behaviourist
          • All behaviour is the result of a response to a stimulus
          • What we do is determined by the enviroment we live in
          • People are born with only a handful of innate reflexes and all of a person's complex behaviour is the result of learning through the enviroment in which they are raised and live in
          • The process of learning is common to all species so they generalise from humans to animals and vice versa
    • Psychodynamic
      • Behaviour can be caused by unconscious experience
      • Psychosexual stages
      • Experinces of early childhood affect adult behaviour
      • Behavious is controlled by unconsciuos forces that we are not aware of
      • It is the way we are treated by aduls/parents as children that has most effect on shaping our adult behaviour
      • Behaviour is controlled by three psyche
        • Id
        • Ego
        • Super ego
      • Defence mechanisms convert unconscious impulses into acceptable forms
  • Psychodynamic
    • Behaviour can be caused by unconscious experience
    • Psychosexual stages
    • Experinces of early childhood affect adult behaviour
    • Behavious is controlled by unconsciuos forces that we are not aware of
    • It is the way we are treated by aduls/parents as children that has most effect on shaping our adult behaviour
    • Behaviour is controlled by three psyche
      • Id
      • Ego
      • Super ego
    • Defence mechanisms convert unconscious impulses into acceptable forms

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