Analysis of Personal Rule

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  • ANALYSIS OF THE PERSONAL RULE
    • FINANCE
      • successes
        • Sold crown land for £640,000 (BUT ONLY SHORT TERM)
        • Peace treaties with France (1629) and Spain (1630) cut costs of War
        • Continued to use tonnage and poundage  impositions and monopolies
        • Pawned crown jewels
        • CROWN DEBT £315,00 by 1637
      • failures
        • SHIP MONEY
          • HAMPDEN TRIAL 1637
            • John Hampden, connected to Puritan network, refused to pay ship money. Taken to court, 5 PREROGATIVE JUDGES dissented (very telling).
            • Only 25% ship money payed in 1639, 2 years after trial, arguably caused by it + in opposition to tax
          • Usually payed 80-100%, except 1639
          • always payed slowly
        • Loss of Crown rent
        • Aggravated many through policies; forest laws the landed gentry, distraint of knighthood the gentry, monopolies the merchants, common people and puritans (popish soap)
        • City of London was hesitant to loan, when they did it was with big interest.
        • 1640 war with Scotland, expenditure rises over income.
          • FALSE MINES, ONLY VIABLE IN PEACE TIME
      • OPPOSITION?
        • WHIG (there was opposition
          • Tax revolts 16/39
          • low speed/ quantity of ship money payment
          • Commoners had no means of opposing anyway
        • REVISIONIST (no real opposition)
          • No real opposition till tax revolts
          • Even those were tame
            • People were more scared of government breakdown than tax
              • Puritan opposition was inevitable
    • STRAFFORD AND IRELAND
      • POLICY OF THOROUGH
        • Improved militia
        • Tighten up local government, before it ran through benign inefficiency
        • 1631 Book of Orders
        • EXEMPLIFIED ABSOLUTISM
      • The North
        • President of the Council in the North 1629
          • Ruthless, disregarded much of the law in process of optimising North
            • Threatened ancient balance between local and central govt.
          • Used council as a king of prerogative court
    • RELIGION
      • LAUD
        • Bish of London by 1629, Archbishop of C by 1633
        • High ranking Govt official on Privy Council
        • Promoted his allies (Neil, Juxton, Wren, Montague)
        • Impeached 1641
        • Executed 1645
      • LAUD'S POLICIES
        • Reestablish wealth, order, power of Church
        • Adherence to 1559 Prayer Book
        • Oppressed unlicenced preachers (Feoffes)
        • Uniformity
        • Promotion of Arminianism
          • Emphasis on spirituality of Communion
      • OPPOSITION
        • Alter Controversy escalated into degrees of violence
        • Burton, Bastwick and Prynne (1637) accused bishops of pride, arrogance, abuse of finance. Puritan pamphlets.
          • All were locked in tower and tortured, Public outcry at their treatment and lost faith of Gentry.
        • 1640 Mob of 500
        • Emigration to New England
        • BUT: no resentment from Feoffes, some elements of reform welcomed (Book of Sports), did not get same level as Ship Money

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