America 1820-1857

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  • America 1820-1857
    • Before 1820
      • 1808 Slave trade becomes illegal
        • 1 million + slaves in America
      • 1787 North ban slavery in North Western territory
      • 1793 Eli Whitneys invention of cotton gin
    • Missouri Compromise 1820
      • Cause
      • Solution/ compromise
        • Maine to be added aswell as Missuri so thebalance is therefore equal
        • No slavery in the Louisianna purchase terrirtory North of 36:30 South of line could exist
    • Texan independance 1836
      • No official help sent by president Jackson however hundreads of Americans from the South and West rushed to Texasthis created a American-Texan Army
      • Texas not admitted as a state due to the North not allowing it due to the fact that it was big enough to be turned into several states therefore spread slavery
        • Became a large issue in the 1844 election
          • Whig Clay vs Democrate Polk. Polk won !Texas addmitted to the Union in 1845 as a terrirtory
      • Laws resented by Texans towards Mexico e.g ban on slavery and no allowing Americans to immigrate to texas
    • Mexican War
      • Cause
        • Mexicans angered at the annexiation of Texas
        • $2 Million dollars owed to American citizens due to Mexican riots
        • Polk sent John Slidell in 1845 to offer $30 million dollars for New Mexico and Calafornia This was refused
        • Polk sent troops in the disputed border to provoke an attack this occured in May 1846
        • Congress declared war
          • South and West fully support . North think its just Southern aggression
      • War
        • Won by America
        • Cosy $1000 million
        • 13,000 dead soldiers
      • Outcome of the war The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Sighned in 1848
        • Calafornia and New Mexico were ceceded to the USA
        • USA paid Mexio $15 million for this and pay claims of American citizens
        • Polk unhappy with treaty he wanted more however Northern opinion
          • However he accepted
      • Impact
        • Wilmot Proviso (David Wilmot)
          • Slavery excluded from any gained land
            • Passed house of representatives but not the sneate
        • Calhoun doctrine (John Calhoun)
          • 1847 issued several resolutions
            • Citizens of USA can take there property anywhere
            • If the Northern majority continued to over ride the South then they would have little options but to secede
            • Congress had no authority to place restrictions of slavery in the gained terrirtory
        • Idea of popular sovereignty
          • Problem with when the quetion should be asked
    • 1848 election
      • Taylor (Whig) vs Cass (Democrate)
        • Taylor wins
          • Allowed states to apply for state hood and choose whether to bar slavery or keep it
            • 1849 California ratified a constitution prohibiting slavery and applied for immediate admission to the union
          • Taylors policys were resented by the South as they fealt that they were excluded from territory gained
            • Believed that because this occured teny should be compensated
            • 1849 Mississippi called on all slave states to a meeting in nashville to devise and adopt resistance to the North
          • Southerners complained that the fugative slave act was not being was not being enforced
          • Northerners objected the fact that Slavery was allowed in Washington
          • Issue with boundary disputes between New Mexico and Texas North supported New Mexico and the South supported Texas
          • Increased idea of seccession
    • The 1850 compromise
      • This was needed as Taylor was ready to go to the south with an army to prevent secession
      • Henry Clay comes up with resolutions January 1850
        • Calafornia admitted as a free state
        • Utah and New Mexico to be organised as territories without any mention of slavery
        • Slave trading but not slavery to be banned in Washington its self
        • More stringent fugative slave act to be passed
        • To resolve the Texas - New Mexico dispute . Texas should surrender the disputed land and  Congress would take the $10 million public debt that Texas owed
      • End of the crisis
        • 1850 nine slave states out of 16 met at Nashville
        • Taylors death has large implications reduced chance of war
          • Fillmore replaces Taylor
        • Clays proposal not accepted
        • Senator Douglass took over the compromise he stripped down Clays bill into component parts. Each part as a seperate bill
        • September 1850 all parts of compromise passed
          • Statehood for calafornia
          • Territorial status for Utah and New Mexico allowing popular sovereignty
          • Resolution of Texas/ New Mexico border dispute
          • Abolition of slave trade in Washington DC
          • New fugative slave act
    • North/South problems 1850-1853
      • Fugative slave act
        • Diddnt arrest an illeged runaway slave fine of $1000!
          • If caught providing food or shelter for a fugative six months imprisonment and $1000 fine
      • Uncle Toms Cabin (Harriet Beecher Stowe)
        • Sold 3000,000 copies in 1852 and a furthur 2 million in the next 10 years
      • 1853 election Democrat Pierce vs Whig Scott
        • Pierce wins
          • Wanted to expand into different territories
          • Gasadan Purchase
            • Gave Gadsdan the authority to purchase 250,000 square miles of Mexican territory. Got 54,000 square miles . This allowed a route of a railway to the pacific
          • Trying to obtain Cuba through overthrowing government
    • Kansas-Nebraska
      • Put forward by Douglas it divided Kansas(West off Missouri) and Nebraska (West of Iowa) into two seperate territories
        • Whether there slave or free determined by popular sovereignty
      • Both North and South moved to kansas in order to vote for there belief
        • Southerners outnumbered northerners
        • First case of popular sovereignty the pro slavers won however there was a call for reelection due to fraud in some areas in July 1855 Anti slavers won this but were turned away by pro slave legislature
          • Due to this they set up there own govner and legislate in Torpeka
            • The divide between them lead to a cicil war in Kansas 30 people died
              • Lead to violance in congress (bleeding Sumner)Sumner beat up by Brooks due to refereing to a family member
    • Dread Scott decision March 1857
      • Was a slave became free due to living in a free state in 1846 The court said he had no right to be free
    • Gag rule 1836-1844
      • rule that limits or forbids the raising, consideration, contribution, or discussion of Slavery
    • Nullification crisis 1832
      • South Carolina refused to pay tariff
        • Jackson threatened to go in with an army
      • Increased importt costs and only seen to benefit the North
        • Shrunk English demand for cotton

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