Alkanes overview

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  • Alkanes
    • saturated hydrocarbons, general formula CnH2n+2
    • bond fission
      • homolytic- bond breaks evenly, each bonding atom recieves one electron
      • heterolytic- bond breaks unevenly with one bonding atom receiving both electrons
    • free radical substitution
      • 1. Initiation, Cl-Cl bond broken(homolytically) producing Cl. +Cl.
        • 2. Propagation, radicals are used up, Cl. reacts with CH4(methane) producing CH3. +HCL the Ch3. then reacts with another Cl2 producing CH3Cl+Cl. . This reaction repeats.
          • 3. Termination, two free radicals join together to make a stable molecule, cl.+CH3. produces CH3Cl
      • loads of possible termination products therefore ending up with a mixture of products.
    • Crude oil
      • made up of mainly alkanes
      • seperated by fractional distillation by vaporising it at about 350 derees.
      • cracking is used to break heavier (long chained) that aren't distlled to make more useful stuff ( from bitumen).
      • thermal cracking- produces lots of alkene, 1000 degrees and high pressure. Produces polymers.
      • catalytic cracking produces lots of aromatic compounds using zeolite catalyst to save time and energy.
      • alkanes can be reformed to aromatic and cycloalkanes. converting straight chain alkanes.
    • Fuels


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