Alkanes

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  • Created by: 12dyer
  • Created on: 10-05-18 13:01
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  • Alkanes
    • Saturated hydrocarbons
      • Only H-C or C-C single bonds
    • Fuels and starting materials
    • Source=Crude oil
    • General formula= CnH2n+2 as branched or unbranched
      • Naming Branched
        • Find the longest unbranched chain to give the root name
          • Add branches as prefixes
            • Add numbers to say where attached to
      • Unbranched
        • Named from the root and ane indicates alkane
    • Ring
      • CnH2n
      • End hydrogens are not required
    • Physical Properties
      • Non-polar as electro negativities are similar
        • Weak London/Intermolecular forces
          • Larger the molecule the stronger the forces because there is more intermolecular forces
      • Boiling Point
        • Increasing intermolecular forces as the molecule gets bigger
          • Boiling point increases as chain length gets bigger
          • Branched chain molecules can't pack together as close therefore intermolecular forces not as effective so boiling point for branched chains are quite low
      • Insoluble in water
        • Water has hydrogen bonds which are stronger than the intermolecular forces in alkanes
      • Relatively unreactive
        • They burn
          • Form either C02 and water when burnt in plenty of O OR C0 and water in restricted O

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