Carboxylic acids, alcohols and esters.

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  • Alcohols, Carboxylic acids and Esters.
    • Alcohols
      • The alcohols are a homologous series of organic compounds.
      • They all contain the functional group –OH.
        • This group is responsible for the properties of alcohols.
      • The names of alcohols end with ‘-ol’ – eg ethanol.
        • alcohols are highly flammable, making them useful as fuels.
      • They are also used as solvents in marker pens, medicines, and cosmetics
    • Carboxylic acids
      • The carboxylic acids are a homologous series of organic compounds.
      • They all contain the same functional group –COOH.
      • The names of carboxylic acids end in ‘-oic acid’ – eg ethanoic acid.
      • Vinegar is an aqueous solution containing ethanoic acid
      • Ethanoic acid is formed from the mild oxidation of the ethanol
    • Esters
      • Esters are a group of organic compounds which all contain the functional group –COO–.
        • they are volatile - they are liquids that become vapours easily
        • they have distinctive ‘fruity’ smells
      • These properties make esters very useful as food flavourings, and as perfumes in cosmetics.
        • Some esters are obtained from natural sources, such as fruits. Others are manufactured.
      • Excess ethanoic acid in the reaction mixture is neutralised with sodium hydrogencarbonate
      • The first part of an ester’s name comes from the alcohol - it ends with the letters 'yl'. The second part of its name comes from the carboxylic acid - it ends with the letters 'oate'.

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