Ainsworth’s Strange Situation: Types of attachment

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  • Ainsworth'd strange situtation - types of attachment
    • Type of attachment between infants and their caregivers
    • Study-strange situation
      • 12-18Mo and their mothers were observed using a video camera in a playroom (lab) to asses
        • 3) Reunion behaviour
        • 2) Seperation anxiety
        • 4) Stranger anxiety
        • 1) Exploration behaviour (secure)
      • 8 episodes - each designed to highlight behaviours.
        • 1) Parent and infant play
          • 2) Parent sits while infant plays
            • 3) Stranger enters and talks to parent
              • 4) Parent leaves, stranger offers comfort if needed
                • 5) Parent returns, offers comfort if needed, stranger leaves
                  • 6) Parent leaves . infant alone
                    • 7) Stranger returns, offers comfort
                      • 8) Parent returns
      • F = Exploratory behaviour declined in all infants from episode 2
        • F = three main patterns of behaviour
          • 2) Insecure-avoident (Type A) - 15%
            • Explores freely without bothering where mum is - not upset when mum leaves - not bothered by stanger - not bothered when mum returns
          • 3) Insecure-resistant (Type C) -9%
            • Stays close to mum - very upset when mum leaves- doesnt like stranger - cross when mum returns and not easily comforted
          • 1) Secure (Type B) -62%
            • Explores happily while keeping an eye on mum - Moderately upset when mum leaves - wary of stranger - readily comforted by mum on return
    • 4th attachment
      • Overlooked a fourth attachment type (insecure-disorganised) type D which was found by other psychologists that overlooed her study
        • Lack of consistent patterns of social behaviour
        • Support - meta-analysis of 80 US studies - TA 15%, TB 62%, TC 9%, TD 15%
          • Cofounding variable = invalid data
    • Observations had high reliability
      • Ainsworth foudn almost perfect agreement when rating exploratory behaviour - .94 agreement between raters
        • = acceptable as reliable
    • Cultural differences
      • ** test is cultural bound as it doesnt have the same meaning outside western culture - Takashi noted that japanses babies are rarely seperated from mothers = high seperation anxiety
    • RWA - COSP
      • Caregivers taught to uderstanf babies better = securely attached ratings went from 32%-40%

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