Acids, Bases and Salts

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  • Created by: nuhaazhar
  • Created on: 26-09-16 02:52
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  • Acids, Bases and Salts
    • Acids
      • Compounds that when dissolved in water, produces H+ ions (proton donors)
      • AciDs turn blue litmus paper reD
      • The stronger the acid, the easier it is to give off H+ ions and ionise completely
      • ph 1-6
      • Organic acids
        • Weak and dilute
        • Present in animal and plant species
        • Ethanoic, Methanoic, Lactic, Citric. EMLC
      • Mineral acids
        • Strong
        • Highly corrosive
        • Carbonic, Hydrochloric, Nitric, Sulfuric, Phosphoric
      • Acidity in soil
    • Bases
      • Insoluble substances which neutralise acids to form a salt and water only (proton acceptors)
      • ph 8-14
      • Bases turn litmus paper Blue
      • Alkalis
        • All alkalis are bases but not all bases are alkalis
        • A substance that dissolves in water to produce hyroxide ions
        • The stronger the alkali, the easier it is to produce hydroxide ions and ionise completely
    • Salts
      • Ionic compounds made by the neutralisation of an acid with a base
      • The solubility of salts
        • Influences the preparation method
        • Soluble: neutralising an acid
          • Preparation
            • Acid plus solid metal, or base, or carbonate
          • Titration
            • Acid plus alkali
        • Insoluble: other methods
          • Precipitation
            • Soluble salt plus soluble salt
      • Water of crystallisation
        • Affects how the crystals are handled at the end of the experiment
        • Water included in the structure of certain salts as they crystallise
        • Hydrated salts when heated, WOC driven off as steam become a powder and become an anhydrous salt


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