A2 Media Effects theories and theorists- Audience and Narrative

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  • Created by: Shani
  • Created on: 23-05-13 08:57
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  • A2 Media - Effects theories and theorists- Audience and Narrative
    • Narrative
      • Propp
        • He identified a group of typical people you would find in a story and who preform essential roles
          • Hero
          • Villain
          • Dispatcher
          • Donor
          • The Helper
      • Levi-Strauss
        • He argued that stories move from one stage to the next by creating conflicts between two opposing elements that have to be resolved. BINARY OPPOSITES!
          • Love & Hate
          • Good & Bad
      • Barthes
        • he said that the meaning of a text is produced through five ‘codes of intelligibility’
          • The Enigma is the questions that the narrative answers e.g. when wen want to know what happens next we are responding to this code
          • The Action code is the events that move the narrative forward
          • The Semic code refers to the elements that have meaning throughout the story
          • The Symbolic Code refers to the pairs of binary opposites that express the key meanings of the story.
          • The Cultural code is refers to the things that are common knowledege in the story.
      • Todorov
        • He argued that all narratives follow a common structure
          • 1. Equilibrium
          • 2. Disequilibrium
          • 3. Resolution
          • 4. New Equilibrium
    • Audience
      • Bulmer & Katz / Uses and Gratification
        • The idea behind this theory is that the audience use the media to gain certain types of gratification.
          • Surveillance- what we hear and what we see in the media constructs how we behave and our reality. (how we think)
          • Personal Identity- Influences how we see ourselves and makes us think about our place in society by comparing ourselves to the characters we see in the Film/ Ad
          • Personal Relationships- Through the media people develop personal relationships with media characters, thinking what actually happened in the Programme/Film actually happened.
          • Diversion - Watchingthing in the media provides the audience with an escape from everyday life and its stresses.
      • Stuart Hall / Encoding Decoding
        • The audience - prefered reading - and audience can react to a Film/Ad in one of three ways.
          • Dominant- the person watching accepts the Film/Ad and what it is saying without question.
          • Negotiated- the person watching understands the Film/Advert and generally accepts it, but that then changes based on their social postion and experience
          • Oppositional- thye person watching understands the Film/Ad but opposed what it is portraying
      • David Morley / Reception theory
        • The atributes and the personal preference of the person in the audience, effects how we interpret a Film/Ad and what meaning we get from it.
          • factors that can effect opinion
            • Mood
            • upbringing
            • experience
            • culture
            • gender
            • social class
            • ethnicity
      • The Hypodermic syringe
        • Passive, Surveillance - Individuals observe the media, accepting it and not questioning it.
          • Dave Gauntlet says that this theory is simplistic and 1 dimensional
  • He identified a group of typical people you would find in a story and who preform essential roles
    • Hero
    • Villain
    • Dispatcher
    • Donor
    • The Helper

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