2.3 Carbohydrates - Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

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  • 2.3 Carbohydrates Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
    • Don't forget glycosidic bonds
    • Test for Non-reducing sugars
      • These sugars won't reduce in benedict's solution so they need to be broken down first. This is done by adding hydrochloric acid to the sample and heating in a waterbath. Then adding Sodium hydrogencarbonate to neutralise the acid.
      • Test for Starch
        • 1. Place some of the sample in a test tube
        • 3. Presence of starch is indicated by the liquid going blue/black
        • 2. Add iodine solution (a few drops)
    • Digestion
      • Starch Digestion
        • Starts in the mouth by being chopped up by teeth and mixed with saliva
          • Saliva contain amylase which breaks starch into maltose
            • Starch digestion continues in the small intestine
              • Pancreatic juices contain other enzymes such as amylase
                • Amylase continues to break down starch into maltose
                  • Maltose isn't useful to the body so it continues to be broken down into glucose
      • Sucrose and Lactose digestion
        • These both pass into the small intestine
          • Sucrase breaks down Sucrose into Glucose and Fructose
          • Lactase breaks down Lactose into Glucose and Galactose
            • These products can now be absorbed
              • Sucrase breaks down Sucrose into Glucose and Fructose
    • Lactose Intolerance
      • Lactose intolerant people can't produce lactase due to a faulty gene which means they can't digest Lactose so they have to avoid dairy products that contain Lacotse.

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