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  • alcohols and Phenols
    • alcohols
      • classification
        • Secondary:   have two carbons directly attached to the C-OH group
        • Tertiary:   have three carbons directly attached to the C-OH group
        • Primary:  no more than one carbon directly bonded to the C-OH group
      • formation
        • from a halogenoalkane
          • reflux with   aqueous NaOH
          • Nucleophilic substitution
          • test that reaction has occurred with AgNO3  ( yellow precipitate)
        • From  alderhydes and ketones
          • Reducing agent NaBH4
      • reactions
        • reaction with hydrogen halides
          • Chlorination
            • Pass HCl gas into alcohol in the presence of ZnCl2 catalyst
          • Bromination
            • Heat the alcohol, KBr and 50% H2SO4
          • Iodination
            • warm with red phosphorus and iodine
        • Producing an ester
          • with ethanoyl chloride
            • react primary or seconday alcohol with acyl chloride
            • gives a higher yield than carboxylic acid but is not cost effective at an industrial level
          • with carboxylic acid
            • reflux a carboxylic acid and alcohol
            • H2SO4 catalyst
            • remove water to shift equilibrium to RHS to make more product
    • phenols
      • Benzene ring where a hydroxyl group is bonded directly to the ring
      • acidity of phenol
        • benzene ring weakens the O-H bond
        • the H+ can be lost in aqueous solution meaning phenols are weakly acidic
        • is stable as the negative charge is spread around the ring
        • stronger acid than alcohols but less strong than carboxylic acids
      • reactions
        • with Bromine
          • produces 2,3,4- tribromophenol (white precipitate)
          • test for bromine as the bromine is decolourised
        • with aqueous Iron (III) chloride
          • turns purple if phenol is preset


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