Eye Witness Testimonies

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How can memory be damaged by post event discussion?
Discussing events with others afterwards can lead to the conformity effect where witnesses unintentionally influence each other's memory
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How did Gabbert research the damage caused by post event discussion?
He gave RP's different videos of the same event and some discussed it in pairs after. 71% of the group who discussed went on to mistakenly recall items acquired during the discussion
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What happened from the Oklahoma bombings?
One witness claimed (falsely) to see the murderer with an accomplice and this was found to have influenced 2 other witnesses to 'remember' the same thing
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Explain Loftus' idea of the 'Weapon focus effect'
If someone was threatened with a weapon they become very anxious and their focus of attention is narrowed to the weapon, so they take in fewer other details such as who is carrying the weapon
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What was Johnson & Scott's bloody knife study?
They made RP's overhear a discussion in a room and had to try to identify the man coming out of it. In 1 RP's were less able to identify the man as he carried a bloody knife whereas the other group could more easily as the man carried a greasy pen
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For the Johnson and Scott study?
Fairly good ecological validity- real situation, high level of control on the view that the RP's had.
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What was Yerkes Dodson Law?
Moderate arousal/anxiety can improve recall
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What are the 4 ways of cognitive interviews?
Context reinstatement, Order change, Perspective change, Everything is reported
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What is context reinstatement?
Recreating a mental image of the whole scene (weather, mood) so the person can re-experience it
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What is order change?
Report the events in reverse order and also flick backwards and forwards in time
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What is perspective change?
Try to recreate the events as if it was seen from the viewpoint of other witnesses not just your own
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What is everything reported?
When every detail remembered is reported even if it seems insignificant as it can trigger recall of important things
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For the Cognitive interviews
It lets the person concentrate on the whole event not specific details, less chance of leading questions, Stein
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What was Stein's study?
He showed Brazilian cleaners a video of a kidnapping and interviewed them using a cognitive interview or normal interview. The cognitive interview increased recall including specific details.
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Against the Cognitive Interviews
Memon- studied the use of the cognitive interview by police investigating a real incident and found it didn't produce any more info than a normal interview
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How did Gabbert research the damage caused by post event discussion?

Back

He gave RP's different videos of the same event and some discussed it in pairs after. 71% of the group who discussed went on to mistakenly recall items acquired during the discussion

Card 3

Front

What happened from the Oklahoma bombings?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain Loftus' idea of the 'Weapon focus effect'

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was Johnson & Scott's bloody knife study?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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