# Waves

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Transverse Waves
Vibrations are perpendicular to direction of travel eg. light and electromagnetic spectrum waves
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Longtitudinal Waves
Vibrations are parallel to direction of travel eg. sound waves and ultrasound
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Refraction
When waves change direction as they enter a different wave medium
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Refractive Index Equation
n = sinI / sinR
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Total Internal Refraction-Optical Fibres
Optical fibres work by reflecting and bouncing waves off their inner core, repeatedly reflects the waves, Only happens when was goes into a less dense substance
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Total Internal Refraction
When angle of incidence is greater then the critical angle
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Total Internal Reflection Equation
sinC = 1/n
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Amplitude
Height of wave to the middle line
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Wave Length
Length from one crest to another or a trough to a trough
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Wave speed Equation
Wave Speed = Wave length x Frequency
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Analogue Signals
Continuously varying, can take any value, Hard to read with noise
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Digital Signals
Only take 1 and 0, Easier to read when noise has passed through it so can have more channels and is used by computers and digital sound and imaging
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Diffraction
Waves spread out as they pass through a small gap, Amount of Diffraction depends on size of gap to wavelength, narrower gap = larger wavelength
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Electromagnetic Spectrum Order
Radio Waves, Micro Waves, Infra-red, Visible Light, Ultra Violet, X-Rays, Gamma Rays
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Used for TV and FM Radio
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Micro Waves
Used for Satellites and Mobile Phones and cooking
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Infra-red
Used to Monitor Temperature, Security Systems, Infra-red Sensors can burn you
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Visible Light
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Ultra Violet
UV Tanning and can cause skin cancer
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X-Rays
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Gamma Rays
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Reflection
Light reflected from objects into our eyes, Light travels in straight lines
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Vibrations are parallel to direction of travel eg. sound waves and ultrasound

#### Back

Longtitudinal Waves

### Card 3

#### Front

When waves change direction as they enter a different wave medium

n = sinI / sinR

### Card 5

#### Front

Optical fibres work by reflecting and bouncing waves off their inner core, repeatedly reflects the waves, Only happens when was goes into a less dense substance