US Political Parties

  • Created by: T Colby
  • Created on: 14-04-17 23:38
How many functions do political parties have?
7
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What are the 7 functions of political parties?
Participation, aggregation of interests, representation, training and recruitment, ideological choice, education and supplying a government and opposition.
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How can the 7 functions of political parties best be remembered?
With the acronym utilising the first letter of each function combining to PARTIES.
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Discuss participation.
Parties seek out talented individuals who have desire to become involved in politics. They encourage their members, supports and the broader population to cast their votes in elections. They aim to involve people and promote democracy.
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Discuss aggregation of interests.
Parties create a pool of individuals who understand political issues and who can cope with the demands of a government position. Provide a forum in which individuals with similar ideas or values can join together and take action.
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Discuss representation.
Parties will aim to protect and promote the interests of their members and core supporters (in terms of voters and financial supporters). Parties will provide clear objectives and goals for a region or the country and formulate workable programmes.
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Discuss training and recruitment.
Party members will be of assistance to the party in the administration and promotion of elections.
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Discuss ideological choice.
Parties decide upon certain policies to gon into its party platform and the parties disseminate these ideas to party membership and the electorate. This provides an ideological choice.
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Discuss education.
Parties aim to inform and educate the general voting public about the current political issues.
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Discuss supplying a government and opposition.
Parties provide candidates who will ultimately become future leaders in government. Parties provide an effective opposition who will scrtutinise the government and highlight key concerns to the electorate.
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What is the only manifestation of party structure on a national level?
National committees; Democratic National Committee (DNC) and the Republican National Committee (RNC).
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Where do both the DNC and RNC have offices?
Both have offices in Washington D.C.
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How is the chair of the DNC and RNC elected?
Both elected by fellow committee members.
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Who have heard of the chairs of the national committees?
Few ordinanry voters.
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Who is the DNC chair as of January 2013?
Debbie Wasserman Schultz
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Who is the RNC chair?
Reince Priebus of Wisconsin.
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What do the national committees of parties organise?
The parties' National Conventions
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What are National Conventions?
The most public manifestation of the parties.
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What do national committees of parties run and why?
Run weak affairs as parties are better considered as state-organised decentralised organisations.
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What can there be between national and state parts of the parties?
Disagreements; e.g. in the 2008 Presidential Election.
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Why was there disagreements between the national and state parts of the parties in the 2008 Presidential Election?
The national committees for both the Republicans and Democrats had agreed on the rules for the state-based presidential primaries and caucasus. They'd both laid down rules concerning the dates between which states could schedule their nominating ...
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contests. E.g. the DNC's Rules and Bylaws Committee states that only Iowa, New Hampshire, Nevada and South Carolina could hold primaries and caucasus before 5 February 2008. But the state parties of Michigan and Florida scheduled their contests, ...
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respectively, on 15 and 29 January. In response, the DNC voted in August 2007 to ***** both state parties of their National Convention delegates. A later compromise meant that both states could keep their delegates but they were only granted half ...
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votes at the convention.
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What oversees policy and campaigning of the parties?
Each party has a series of committees in both houses of Congress known as congressional committees.
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Who is the chair of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee?
Senator Patty Murray
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Why is Murray accredited for?
The Democrats' successful 2012 Senate campaign, which resulted in the party winning two seats, boosting its number of Senate seats from 51 to 53 (plus 2 independents).
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What are the only 2 elements of parties that are on the national level?
Everything else besides national and congressional committees of parties is at the state level.
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Where is considerable power of parties vested?
In the state governors and mayors of big cities.
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What is the undertakings at National Party Committees?
Mere coming together of delegates from the state parties, chosen in state-run primaries.
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What are below State Party Committees and State Party Conventions?
Party committees at county, city and ward levels.
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Who heads State Party Committees?
The State Party Chair
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What is somewhat outdated?
Big city 'machine' politics still somewhat exists in some regions but is mostly outdated.
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Who was thought of as the last big-city party boss?
Mayor Richard Daley who died in 1976.
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Who are state and local parties dominated by?
Dominated by 2 new kinds of party activist: the 'issue activist' and 'candidate activist'.
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Who are 'issue activists'?
People committed to a particular politicla issue such as civil rights and women's rights.
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Who are 'candidate activists'?
People who have come into politics through working on the campaign of a particular candidate.
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What are the 2 widely accepted main forms of government ideologically?
Left and right
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What 4 ideological theories/forms are present in the left?
Communism, labour, democrats, parties.
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What 4 ideological theories/forms are present on the right?
Parties, republican, conservative, nationalist.
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Is liberal and conservative progressive or traditional?
Liberal is progressive and conservative is traditional.
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What 2 things does the left form of government interfere with?
Society and social lives.
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What 2 things does the right form of government not interfere with?
Society and social lives.
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What is the left's society and culture based on?
Community and ethics.
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What is the right's society and culture based on?
Community and morals.
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What is the history of the Republican Party?
Anti-Federalist/Democratic Republicans, Grand Slam Old Party anti-slavery, Eisenhower, Nixon, Reagan's Neo Conservatism, George H.W. Bush's compassionate conservatism, Bush Jr and Trump.
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What is the history of the Democrat Party?
Federalists, Andrew Jackson, FDR, Johnson, Clinton, Obama.
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How can the history of the 2 main parties be broken down?
New Government (1787-1812), The 'era of good feelings' (1812-1828), Democracy (1828-1850s), Slavery (1850s-1920s), The Great Depression (1920s-1960s), Civil Rights (1950s-60s), Federalism (1970s-00s), present.
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How are the 2 main parties ideologically similar on perceptions of ideological differences and voting behaviour?
1960s political commentators said there were very few ideological differences between the 2 parties. Professor Clinton Rossiler said "They are creatures of compromise, coalitions of interest in which principle is muted and often silenced."
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How are the 2 main parties ideologically different on perceptions of ideological differences and voting behaviour?
Recently people are more ideologically separate and this is reinforced by the media. New media like e-mail, television, mobile phones has replaced old media like newspapers and journals.
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How are the 2 main parties ideologically similar on policies and broad ideology?
While most Democrats and Republicans will take these strong ideological positions, not all will. The two parties are actually very diverse and not always cohesive in what they believe.
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How are the 2 main parties ideologically different on policies and broad ideology?
Key issue = increased spending on social welfare programmes supported by the Democrats but not the Republicans.
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How are the 2 main parties ideologically similar on split ticket voting?
In 1984 43.9% of congressional districts returned a presidential candidate from one party and a House members fom another.
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How are the 2 main parties ideologically different on split ticket voting?
Some commentators have suggested that party alignment is strong now because of the increased ideological polarisation of the two major political parties from the 1980s onwards.
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How are the 2 main parties ideologically similar on partisanship and party unity?
From 1941-80 the parties tended to unite together in the face of Communism in the Soviet Union.
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How are the 2 main parties ideologically different on partisanship and party unity?
Partisan votes particularly high in 1995 with the rule of President Clinton 73% of votes in the House were partisan and 69% in the Senate were partisan.
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How are the 2 main parties ideologically similar on geographical evidence?
Blue/red divide too simplistic: to say that America is ideologically split between the reds and blues is too simplistic. Winner takes all states in Presidental elections makes the US seem more ideologically divided than it actually is.
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How are the 2 main parties ideologically different on geographical evidence?
50/50 split Americans geographically: some states tend to vote solidly for either the Democrats or the Republicans suggesting they are ideologically distinct.
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How has the ideology of the Democrats changed over time?
Democrats originally supported slavery in the South in the Civil War (1850s-1920s) and they supported states rights over the Federal Government, FDR proposed the New Deal programme to tackle unemployment thus, greater government intervention, ...
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Clinton's Third Way tried to blend liberal and socialist ideas as he admitted the "era of big government is over" and Obama increased role of Federal Government.
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How has the ideology of the Republicans changed over time?
Were the party of the North of big business, enterprise, capitalism and a Protestant work ethic. Then were at their height in the 1920s-30s. Nixon and Reagan planned to hand power back to states. Bush Jr increased size of Federal Government + Trump.
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What is the contradition of Trump?
Supposedely anti-establishment but has so far increased the role of the Federal Government with many executive orders.
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Give evidence of differences within the 2 major parties.
Break up of the Solid South - before the 1960s conservative voters in the South tended to vote Democrat. However, they were attracted to vote Republican by Nixon and Reagan as the Democrats' policies towards civil rights were too liberal.
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Give evidence of differences between the 2 major parties.
Public perception said there was more of a difference between the parties in the 00s - "Do you think there are any important differences in what the Republicans and Democrats stand for? 2004 = 20% no difference and 76% yes a difference
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Give evidence of no differences within the 2 major parties.
Republican party is diverse today e.g. Republican representative Trent Lott of Mississippi might have very different views to moderate Republican Senator Olympia Snowe of Maine. Snowe might even vote with the conservative Democrats.
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Give evidence of no differences between the 2 major parties.
1960s political commentators, said that there were very few ideological differences between the two parties: Professor Clinton Rossiter said: "They are creatures of compromise, coalitions of interest in which principle is muted and often silenced."
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Give some evidence for the 2 main political parties in the UK (Labour and the Conservatives) being ideologically similar.
Can be proven by voting behaviour. In 2000 only 40% of people said they were strongly attached to a political party compared to 75% in 1911.
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Give some evidence for the 2 main political parties in the UK (Labour and the Conservatives) being ideologically different.
In the period of 1980-83 Labour and the Conservatives became more distant ideologically due to Foot and Benn's Militant Tendency and a move towards democratic socialism.
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Give some evidence to suggest the US does have a 2 party system.
Every POTUS since 1856 has been either a Democrat or Republican. In January 2009 all 50 state governors were either Democrats or Republicans.
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Give some evidence to suggest the US doesn't have a 2 party system.
The parties are very much state run and only unite every 4 years to fight the presidential campaign. Ross Perot came close to a breakthrough for third parties in 1992 by winning 19% of the popular vote.
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Give 8 reasons why third parties don't play a m\ajor roles in US politics and elections.
Lack resources and don't qualify for 'matching funds', lack media coverage, lack well-known/qualified candidates, portrayed as extreme, policies stolen by 2 major parties, electoral system (FPTP), temporary, disadvantaged by state ballot access laws.
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How do major party candidates qualify for matching funds?
By raising at least $5000 in contributions of $250 or less in at least 20 states - not a difficult requirement.
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What are states' ballot access laws?
Laws in each state regulate how third-party candidates can qualify to get their name on the ballot.
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What is Tennessee's ballot access law?
Requires just 25 signatures on a petition.
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What is California's ballot access law?
The number of signatures required is equal to 1% of the electorate in the state.
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What did John Anderson estimate he had to gather to get on the ballot of all 50 states?
Estimated he had to gather around 1.2 million signatures nationwide to get on the ballot in all 50 states and he had to have spent around $3 million just doing that.
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State the most famous third parties and their candidates in Presidential elections.
George Wallace 1968 American Independence Party 13.5% popular vote, John Anderson 1980 National Unity Party 7% popular vote, Ross Perot 1992 19% popular vote, Ross Perot 1996 Reform Party 9% popular vote and Ralph Nader 2000 Green Party 2.7% p vote.
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Give an example of a third-party candidate lacking media coverage.
In the 2000 Presidential Election only Bush and Gore appeared in the three presidential debates whereas Nader was excluded.
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Give an example of the two main parties trying to portray a third-party as an extremist party.
Republicans smeared pro-segregationist George Wallace with the slogan: "If you liked Hitler, you'll love Wallace."
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Give an example of a third-parties policies being adopted by the two main parties.
Republican President Richard Nixon launched his 'southern strategy' to woo Wallace voters in the run-up to the 1972 election.
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Give a some reasons why third-party candidates don't play important roles in the US.
Bob Barr obtained 0.24% of the popular vote in the 2008 Presidential Election. It is rare they win any Electoral College votes e.g. Wallace got 45. In 2016 there were 0 Electoral College votes for third parties.
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Give some reasons for why third-party candidates do play important role in the US.
Wallace got 13.5% of the popular vote splitting the Democratic Party in half in 1968 causing Nixon's Republican victory. Ross Perot was the first candidate to argue for reducing the deficit budget and it has been a key discussion point since.
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How many types of third-parties are there?
4; issue permanent/national, issue state-based/regional, ideological permanent/national and ideological state-based/regional.
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What category does the Green Party fit into?
This is a national, issue based, permanent party which is committed to environmentalism, non-violence, social justice and challenging corporate dominance.
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What category does the American Independence Party fit into?
National, ideological, permanent party. Emphasises repsect for life, fiscal responsibility, reduced role of governemnt in people's lives, reduction of tax burden, crime control, and an American first non-interventionist foreign policy.
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What category does the New York Conservative Party fit into?
It is state based, ideologically based party, which aims to promote conservative vales and leaders in New York.
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What is the Tea Party and where did it come from?
Includes the Tea Party Confederation, a broad coalition of local and regional groups and the Tea Party Nation which convened the first National Tea Party Nation. Came from the Boston Tea Party (1773).
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What are the beliefs and values of the Tea Party?
Anti-big Federal Government, reducing Federal Government spending and taxation and reducing national debt and federal budget deficit.
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Discuss the Tea Party and Congress.
Tea Party Caucus in the House of Representatives came into existence in July 2010 as a group of 28 Republican House members, a quarter of whom come from Texas.
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Discuss the Tea Party and elections.
Came into political scene in 2009 and first influential in elections in the 2010 Mid-term Elections. Role was to nominate and elect Republican candidates who were truly conservative rather than moderates referred to as RINOs (Republican In Name Only)
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How much impact has the Tea Party had on US politics?
Organisational weaknesses. Faced opposition from Republican leaders. Republican National Committee, National Republican Congressional Committee and the National Republican Senatorial Committee shared its opposition to the Obama White House.
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Is the Tea Party a political party or a pressure group?
Neither; a 'movement'.
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Give a reason for why political parties are possibly in renewal in the US.
2 main parties still dominate the political scene: After the 2008 election, only 2 Senators were from third parties and all governors and House members were either Democrat or Republican.
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Give a reason for why political parties are possibly in decline in the US.
The National Party Committees are weak: in comparison to the decentralised and undisciplined state parties. In 2008 some state parties disobeyed the DNC and RNC over timings of their primaries.
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Who wrote a book entitled 'The Party's Over: The Failure of Politics in America' arguing the the decline of US political parties?
David Broder in 1972.
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What are the 4 main reasons for party decline in the US?
Candidate selection, parties as communicators, candidate centred campaigns and split ticket voting.
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Why is candidate selection a reason for US political parties being in decline in the US?
When Presidential candidates are vying to be the party nominee they compete in primaries and amass delegates that can vote for them at the national nominating conventions.
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However, until the 1960s, Presidential nominees were decided by party officials but now the party has control leading to contemporary examples like Donald Trump in the Republican Party in 2016.
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Why is the factor of parties as communicators a reason for US political parties being in decline?
Traditionally to get a message to the electorate a party rally would be organised and the two way communication process was set in motion. However in an age of television and opinion polls this function has been removed from parties.
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Why are candidate centred campaigns a reason for US political parties being in decline?
Electoral races are now becoming more and more about the candidates or issues rather than the parties. If you take a look at the US Advert Round Up and count how many times you hear Democrat, Republican or associated terms mentioned, you will see ...
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that no mention is made by any candidates. In some adverts you'd be hard pressed to guess which party each candidate was from.
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Why is split ticket voting a reason for US political parties being in decline?
Split Ticket Voting, whereby a voter will vote one party for President and one party for another race reached its peak in the 1970s and 80s. This has been attributed to issue centred voting. This has also given way to the rise in the number of ...
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voters who classify themselves as independent voters.
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What are the 10 policy areas where there is an ideological split between Democratic and Republican parties?
Abortion, same-sex marriage, immigration, climate change, Wall Street, Iran, Israel, money in politics and voting rights.
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What is the Democratic view on abortion?
Pro-abortion.
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What is the Republican view on abortion?
Anti-abortion.
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What is the Democratic view on same-sex marriage?
Pro-same-sex marriage.
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What is the Republican view on same-sex marriage?
Anti-same-sex marriage.
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What is the Democratic view on immigration?
Want a path for citizenship.
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What is the Republican view on immigration?
Embraced Trump's call for a wall along the Mexico border.
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What is the Democratic view on climate change?
Want to tackle climate change.
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What is the Republican view on climate change?
Doubt whether climate changing and rejects the findings of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
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What is the Democratic view on medicare?
Want to keep medicare a.k.a the Affordable Care Act/Obamacare.
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What is the Republican view on medicare?
Want to replace it but failed in 2017.
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What is the Democratic view on Wall Street?
Want more banking regulations.
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What is the Republican view on Wall Street?
Want less banking regulations.
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What is the Democratic view on Iran?
Relaxed sanctions on Iran.
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What is the Republican view on Iran?
Want more sanctions and disagreed with Obama's Iran Deal.
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What is the Democratic view on Israel?
Want more power to the Palestinians.
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What is the Republican view on Israel?
Undecided view.
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What is the Democratic view on money in politics?
Want less money and more clarity about it in politics.
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What is the Republican view on money in politics?
Want less regulation.
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What is the Democratic view on voting rights?
Wants voting rights for all.
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What is the Republican view on voting rights?
Wants voter identification in states and some wants discrimination.
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Who was seen as opposition to the 2 party system in the 2016 Presidential Election?
Republican Presidential nominee Donald Trump.
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Who does Trump echo politically?
President Ronald Reagan using the same slogan and being anti-establishment.
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What are the causes of a 2 party system?
Single seat constituencies, media attention, familiarity/culture, wealth, voting system (FPTP) and policyn usurping.
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Give a Republican GOP lawmaker who said she'll vote no on the ObamaCare repeal bill?
Republican Ileana Ros-Lehtinen from Florida
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What was the ultimatum that Trump gave Republicans on the ObamaCare repeal bill?
They had a choice to repeal ObamaCare or be stuck with it for good.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the 7 functions of political parties?

Back

Participation, aggregation of interests, representation, training and recruitment, ideological choice, education and supplying a government and opposition.

Card 3

Front

How can the 7 functions of political parties best be remembered?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Discuss participation.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Discuss aggregation of interests.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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