unit 1 (Chemistry)

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What is Relative atomic mass?
The average mass of an atom compared to carbon 12
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What is relative isotopic mass?
The mass of an atom of an isotope compared to carbon 12
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what are the 5 steps of mass spec?
Vaporisation, ionisation, acceleration, deflection, detection
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What happens in the deflection stage?
Paths of the positive ions are altered by a magnetic field, where heavier ones are deflected less
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Why is the magnetic field strength slowly increased?
To allow heavier ions to be deflected such that they hit the detector
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how do you work out mass when its percentage?
Peak percentage times the mass/charge, add them up and divide by 100
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When its not percentage?
peak height times mass/charge, add up peak heights and divide by sum of peak heights
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Why do you get fragments?
the electron hits the molecule and it causes it to split up into its separate fragments.
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Which peak gives the molecular ion?
One furthest to the right
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What is the electronic configuration of calcium?
1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2 3p6, 4s2
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What is ionisation energy?
The amount of energy needed to remove 1 electron from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous ions
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what 3 factors effect ionisation energy?
Nuclear charge, atomic radii and shielding
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What happens to ionisation energy as you go down a group and why
Ionisation energy decreases, atomic radii increases, shielding increases
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What happens to ionisation energy as you go across a period and why
Ionisation energy increases, atomic radii decreases, proton number increases
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Give the two equations for moles
Mol = mass/molar mass and mol=concentration x volume
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What is the ideal gas equation?
pV=nRt
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What does the R stand for in pV=nRt?
gas constant, 8.31
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What is the emperical formula?
The smallest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound
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How do you work out molecular formula from empirical formula?
Work out emperical mass, divide actual mass by emperical mass, times the number of each atom but the result
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How do you calculate empirical formula?
percentage divide by atomic mass, divide each answer by the smallest one, then gives you the ratio
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whats the equation for percentage yield?
%yield = (actual yield/theoretical yield) x 100
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whats the equation for atom economy?
% atom economy = (Mass of desired product/ total mass of reactants) x 100
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What diagram shows an ionic bond?
dot and cross
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What do you have to include in a dot and cross diagram?
Dots, crosses, the square brackets and charge
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what is an giant ionic lattice?
Regular structure made of the same repeated basic units
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Give 3 properties of ionic compounds
Conduct electricity when molten or dissolved, high melting point, dissolve in water
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What is a giant covalent structure?
Network of covalently bonded atoms
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Give two examples of a giant covalent structe
graphite, and diamond
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Give 3 properties of graphite
layers slide, de localized electrons, low density, high melting point, insoluable
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Give 3 properties of diamond
High melting point, hard, thermal conductor, cant conduct electricity, wont dissolve
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What is a charge cloud?
an area where you are likely to find an electron pair
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what charge cloud repel most?
Lone pair - lone pair
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What charge cloud repels the least?
bonding pair - bonding pair
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Does having more lone pairs increase the bond angle or decrease it?
decrease it
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What shape would c02 or becl2 produce?
linear
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What should would bf3 or c03 produce?
Trignonal planar (triangle one)
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What is electro negativity?
The ability for an atom to attract electrons in covalent bond
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What is a polar molecule?
A molecule which has a slight charge
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What are the 3 types of intermolecular forces?
Van der waals, permanent dipole dipole and hydrogen bonds
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Which is strongest?
Hydrogen bonds
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When can hydrogen bond intermolecular forces occur?
When hydrogen is bonded with oxygen, flourine or nitrogen
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is relative isotopic mass?

Back

The mass of an atom of an isotope compared to carbon 12

Card 3

Front

what are the 5 steps of mass spec?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens in the deflection stage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why is the magnetic field strength slowly increased?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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