Unit 1 Biology Revision Cards (1)

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  • Created by: Alisha
  • Created on: 11-07-14 19:19
Pathogen
Microorganisms that cause disease
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Disease
Malfunction of the body/mind which has an adverse effect on good health
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Transmission
When a pathogen is transferred from one individual to another
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Risk
A measure of the probability that damage to health will occur as a result of a given hazard
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Carcinogenic
A chemical, a form of radiation or other agent which causes cancer
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Enzyme
A protein that acts as a catalyst and so alters the speed of the reaction
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Oesophagus
Carries food from the mouth to the stomach. It is adapted for transport so has a thick muscular wall.
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Stomach
Muscular sac with inner layer which produces enzymes, stores and digests food, it also produces mucus to stop is digesting itself
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Small intestine
Long muscular tube, produces enzymes and has digestive juices from glands. Inner walls folded into villi which increase surface area, absorbs products of digestion into the blood stream.
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Large intestine
tube which absorbs water
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Rectum
Stores faeces
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Salivary glands
Pass secretions into mouth, these contain enzymes
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Pancreas
Large gland below stomach, produces pancreatic juice
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Physical digestion
Large pieces of food broken down by structures like teeth or churning on stomach
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Chemical digestion
Breaks down large, insoluble molecules into smaller, soluble ones (carried out by enzymes)
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Hydrolysis
Splitting up of molecules by adding water to the chemical bonds which hold them together
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Carbohydrates
Break down carbohydrates ultimately into monosaccharides
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Lipases
Breaks down lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
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Proteases
Break down proteins ultimately to amino acids
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Assimilation
Small molecules from digestion are built up again and incorporated into body tissues/used in processes within the body
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Monomer
Individual molecules which can bond together to form a polymer
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Polymer
Longer chain of repeating monomer units
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Monosaccharide
Single monomer (simplest form of carbohydrate)
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Disaccharide
A pair of monosaccharides
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Polysaccharides
Large chain of monosaccharides (more than 2)
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Reducing sugar
A sugar that can donate electrons to (or reduce) another chemical
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Benedict's test
Test for reducing sugar - when benedict's (blue) is added and put in a water bath, a red ppt is produced if a reducing sugar is present
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Condensation reaction
Reaction which forms a glycosidic bond by removing a water molecule
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Glycosidic bond
A covalent bond formed in a condensation reaction that holds together a sugar and another sugar (or group)
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Non-reducing sugar
A sugar which isn't able to donate electrons to other molecules
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Amylase
Enzyme produced in the mouth and pancreas which breaks down starch to produce disaccharide maltase
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Denatured
Permanent changes due to the unraveling of 3D structure of protein as a result of factors such as changes in temperature and pH
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Maltase
Enzyme which hydrolyses maltose into glucose
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Lactose
Enzyme which hydrolyses the glycosidic bond that links the glucose and galactose monosaccharides that make up lactose
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Sucrase
Enzyme that hydrolyses the single glycosidic bond in sucrose in sucrose to produce two monosaccharides glucose and fructose
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Lactose intolerance
A condition where a person doesn't produce enough lactase to digest the lactose they consume
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Amino acid
Basic monomer units which combine to make up a polymer called a polypeptide
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Peptide bond
The chemical bond formed between two amino acids during condensation
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Polymerisation
Series of condensation reactions which cause many amino acid monomers to be joined together
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Polypeptide
Chain of hundreds of animo acids
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Hydrogen bond
Chemical bond formed between the positive charge on a hydrogen atom and the negative charge on another atom of an adjacent molecule
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Biuret Test
Protein test - which detects peptide links, sodium hydroxide solution added if peptide bonds are present it will turn from blue to purple
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Collagen
Fibrous protein that is the main constituent of connective tissues such as tendons, cartilage and bones
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Activation Energy
Energy required to bring about a reaction lowered by the presence of enzymes
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Active site
A group of amino acids that make up the region of an enzyme into which a substrate fits in order to catalyse a reaction
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Substrate
A substance that is acted on or used by another substance or process
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Enzyme-substrate complex
Formed when the substrate molecule is held within the active site by bonds that temporarily form between certain amino acids of the active site and the groups on the substrate molecule
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Lock and key model
Model for enzyme substrate interaction suggesting the enzyme and substrate possesses specific complimentary shapes that fit exactly into each other.
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Induced fit model
A model for enzyme substrate interaction, describes that only the proper substrate is capable of inducing the proper alignment of the active site that will enable enzyme to work.
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Competitive inhibitor
Inhibitor which occupies the active site of an enzyme and prevents the intended substrate from binding
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Non-competitive inhibitor
Inhibitor which bonds to different active site on the enzyme changing the 3D shape of the active site so the intended substrate can't bind
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Microscopy
Magnifying an image of an object using convex lens
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Magnification
How many times bigger the image is compared to the object = size of image/size of object
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Object (magnification)
Material put under microscope
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Image (magnification)
Appearance of material when viewed under microscope
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Resolution
Minimum distance apart that two objects can be in order for them to appear as separate items
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Cell fractionation
Process where cells are broken up and different organelles they contain are separated out
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Isotonic
Solution with the same water potential as the original tissues
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Homogenization
Cells broken up by a blender to form homogenate
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Buffer
Solution used to stabilize the pH of a solution
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Ultracentrifugation
Process where fragments in filtered homogenate are seperated by an ulracentrifuge which spins the tubes at high speed creating centrifugal force. The heaviest organelles form a pellet at the bottom.
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Electron microscope
Microscope which uses a beam of electrons instead of light
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TEM
Transmission electron microscope - produces an image of cross-sectional slice of specimen
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SEM
Scanning electron microscope - produces a 3D image of a specimen
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Mitochondria
Rod-shaped organelles found within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, used for the production of ATP
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Cristae
Extensions of the inner membrane of the mitochondria provide a large surface area
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Matrix
Makes up remainder of mitochondria, semi-rigid material containing protein, DNA, lipids and allows mitochondria to control the production of their own proteins
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ATP
Nucleotide found in all living organisms produced during respiration and important for the transfer of energy
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Active Transport
Movement of a substance from a region where it is of low concentration to a region of high concentration, using ATP
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Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Provides large surface area for the synthesis of proteins and provides a pathway for the transport of materials, especially proteins throughout the cell
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Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Sythesises, stores and transports lipids and carbohydrates
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Cisternae
Made of stack of membranes, flattered sacs which make up the golgi apparatus
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Golgi apparatus
Organelle in eukaryotic cells which: forms glycoproteins; secretes enzymes and carbohydrates; transports, modifies, forms and stores lipids.
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Lysosomes
Isolates potentially harmful enzymes from the rest of the cells before releasing them to the outside of the cell or to a phagocyte vesicle within the cell
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Ribosomes
Small cytoplasmic granules found in all cells, important for protein synthesis
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Microvilli
Finger like projections of the epithelial cell that increase the surface area to allow more absorption
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Triglycerides
An individual lipid molecule made up of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids
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Lipids
Varied group of substances which contain O, H and C, insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol and other organic solvents. The main group include: fats, oils, waxes and phospholipids
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Phospholipids
Triglycerides in which one of the three fatty acid molecules is replaced by a phosphate molecule. Phospholipids are important in the structure and functioning of the membrane
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Plasma membranes
The cells outer membrane made up of two layers of phospholipids with embedded proteins. Regulates what foes in and out and separates contents of the cells from the outside environment.
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Saturated
Contains no carbon carbon double bonds
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Mono saturated
Contains one carbon carbon double bond
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Polysaturated
Contains more than one carbon carbon double bond
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Hydrophillic
Attracted to water
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Hydrophobic
Orients itself away from water
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Polar
A molecule with two ends that behave differently e.g. phoshoplipid
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Emulsion test
Test for lipids, sample added to ethanol and water, cloudy white colour indicates presence of a lipid
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Extrinsic Proteins
Proteins occuring on either the surface of partly embedded in the bilayer of a membrane. Function: support membrane or cell receptors for hormones.
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Intrinsic Proteins
Proteins which span completely the phospholipid bilayer act as carriers to transport, water soluble material across the membrane or as enzymes
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Fluid mosaic model
Describes structure of cell-surface membrane
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Diffusion
The net movement of molecules or ions from a region where they are more highly concentrated to one where their concentration is lower
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Facilitated diffusion
The transport of a substance across a membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration by means of a protein carrier
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Osmosis
The movement of water from a region of high water potential to a region of low water potential through a partially permeable membrane
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Water Potential
The measure of relative tendency of water to move from one are to another.
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Plasmolysis
The shrinkage of cytoplasm away from the cell wall that occurs as a plant cell loses water by osmosis
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Lumen
The hollow cavity inside a tubular structure such as the gut
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Prokaryotic cells
Cell which doesn't have a nucleus e.g. bacteria
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Eukaryotic cell
Cell with a distinct nucleus
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Flagella
Aids movement of bacterium because its rigid, corkscrew shape and rotating base help the cell spin through fluids
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Capsule
Protects bacterium from other cells and helps groups of bacteria to stick together for further protection
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Circular DNA
Possesses the genetic information for the replication of bacterial cells
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Plasmid
Possesses genes that aid the survival of bacteria in adverse conditions
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Cholera
Disease caused by bacteria vibrio cholerae and transmitted by ingestion of contaminated water/food characterized by diarrhea and dehydration
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Ion Channels
A passage across a cell surface membrane made up of a protein which spans the membrane and opens and closes to allow ions to pass in and out of the cell
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Oral rehydration theory
Means of treating dehydration involving given by mouth, a balanced solution of salts, glucose and ions which stimulate the gut to reabsorb water
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Carrier proteins
A protein on the surface of a cell that helps to transport molecules and ions across plasma membranes
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Placebo
A substance containing no medication, used as a control in an experiment or test to determine the effectiveness of a drug
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Malfunction of the body/mind which has an adverse effect on good health

Back

Disease

Card 3

Front

When a pathogen is transferred from one individual to another

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A measure of the probability that damage to health will occur as a result of a given hazard

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A chemical, a form of radiation or other agent which causes cancer

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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