Unit 10

Incremental change
Small adjustments made, usually over a long period of time, towards a desired end result
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Disruptive change
An irreversible change to products, processes and markets; a change that alters the future completely from what was expected before the change
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Lewin's force field analysis
The force field consists of two opposing forces- one set of driving forces are working for change and the restraining forces against, change occurs once the driving forces are stronger than the restraining
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Flexible organisation
One that can respond quickly to changes taking place in the external environment; it includes a flexible workforce structure that allows capacity to be increased or reduced quickly and easily
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Delayering
The removal of one or more layers of a hierarchy from the management structure leading to a wider span of control
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Flexible employment contracts
Working arrangements that give some degree of flexibility bout how long, where, when and at what time employees work
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Organic structures
Features: Flat organisational structure; horizontal communication and interactions; decentralisation
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Mechanistic structures
Features: Hierarchical and bureaucratic organisational structures; centralised authority; formalised procedures and practices; specialised functions
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Knowledge and information sharing
The practice of organising, storing and sharing vital knowledge and information, so everyone in the organisation can beneift
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Kotter and Schlesinger's four reasons for resistance to change
Parochial self interest;misunderstanding and lack of trust; different assessments; and low tolerance to change
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Kotter and Schlesinger's six ways of overcoming resistance to change
Education and communication; participation and involvement; facilitation and support; negotiation and agreement; manipulation and co-optation; explicit and implicit coercion.
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organisational culture
The unwritten code that affects the attitudes and behaviours of staff, approaches to decision making and the leadership style of management.
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Handy's cultural model
Four types of cultural organisatin
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Task culture
Power is derived from the expertise required to complete a task or project;it is usually associated with a small team approach or small organisations co-operating to deliver s project; the emphasis is on getting results and things done
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Role culture
Power is hierarchical and clearly defined in a company's job descriptions; a person's power derives from their place or role within a highly structured organisation; detailed rules indicate how people and departments interact
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Power culture
Power is concentrated in a small group or central figure, who determines the dominant culture
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Person culture
Where the organisation exists as a vehicle for people to develop their own careers and expertise; the individual is the central point; if there is a structure, it only exists to serve the needs of individuals within it
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Hofstede's national cultures
A model of cultural dimensions that distinguish one country's culture from another
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Power distance
The extent to which power is distributed equally within a society and the degree that society accepts this. A low PD tends to favour personal responsibility and autonomy. Expect to consulted and involved in decision making. High-China Low-UK
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Individualism vs collectivism
Strength of ties people have to ties within the community, high-UK low-China
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Masculinity
High- men are expected to be a provider- Japan Low-equal-Sweden
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Long term orientation
How much a society values long term traditions and values- high- Japan low-USA
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Strategic implementation
The stage when a strategic plan is put into effect in order to achieve the objectives for which it has been designed
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Network analysis
A method of planning business operations in order to identify the most efficient way of completing an integrated task or project
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Critical path
The sequence of activities in a project that must be completed within a designated time in order to prevent any delay in overall completion of the prohect
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Total float for any activity
The number of days that an activity can be delayed without delaying the project
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Planned strategy
Where the main elements of the strategy have been planned in advance and implementation involves putting the precise plan into effect in order to achieve the previously agreed objectives
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Emergent strategy
Unplanned strategy that emerges in response to unexpected opportunities and challenges
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Strategic drift
Where a company responds to slowly to changes in the external and competitive environment; continues with original strategy
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Divorce of ownership and control
Separation of the two functions of ownership and control in a plc
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Corporate governance
A set of relationships between a company's management, it's board it's shareholders and other stakeholders; a system for protecting the interests of the owners of a company
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Strategic planning
The process of determining an organisation's long term goals and then devising a strategy to achieve them
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Contingency planning
Planning for unexpected events that are however reasonably predictable and quantifiable; the objective is to reduce the risks and costs of such events
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

An irreversible change to products, processes and markets; a change that alters the future completely from what was expected before the change

Back

Disruptive change

Card 3

Front

The force field consists of two opposing forces- one set of driving forces are working for change and the restraining forces against, change occurs once the driving forces are stronger than the restraining

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

One that can respond quickly to changes taking place in the external environment; it includes a flexible workforce structure that allows capacity to be increased or reduced quickly and easily

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The removal of one or more layers of a hierarchy from the management structure leading to a wider span of control

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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