Tourism

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Why is tourism a growing industry?
More people are going on holiday as they have more disposable income, companies give more paid holidays, travel has become cheaper (particularly air travel), and holiday providers like hotels now use internet to sell products directly, cheaper
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Why are some destinations becoming more popular than they used to be?
Improvements in transport (making it faster and easier), fact that countries in more unusual places like Middle East and Africa got better at marketing themselves as tourist attractions. Many countries invested in infrastructure for tourism- gd hotel
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What are the main tourist destinations?
Cities, Mountains, and Coasts
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Why are Cities popular tourist destinations?
Culture (museums, art galleries), entertainment (bars, restaurants, theatres), and shopping
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Why are Mountains popular tourist destinations?
Beautiful scenery, activities like walking, climbing, skiing, and snowboarding.
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Why are Coasts popular tourist destinations?
Beaches, activities like swimming, snorkelling, fishing, and water skiing
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Why is tourism important to the economies of many countries?
Creates jobs for locals, increases income of businesses that supply tourist industry e.g. farms supply food to hotels. Tourism important in both rich and poor countries, poor countries more dependent. e.g tourism contributes to 3% of UK GDP, 15% Keny
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Why do people visit the UK?
Countryside, history, churches, cathedrals, castles, and palaces. London is particularly popular for theatres, museums, and shopping. It is the destination for half of UK visitors. In 2007, tourism contributed 114 billion to economy & employed 1.4 mi
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What are the factors that affect the number of tourists visiting the UK?
Weather, World Economy, Exchange Rate, Terrorism and conflict, Major Events
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How does Weather contribute to the number of tourists in the UK?
Bad weather can discourage tourists e.g. wet summer in 2007 blamed for tourist drop
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How does World economy contribute to the number of tourists in the UK?
In recession, less people can afford to go on holiday, so there are less overseas visitors. However, this means that more UK citizens choose to holiday in UK
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How does the Exchange rate contribute to the number of tourists in the UK?
If the value of the pound is low compared to other currencies, the UK is cheaper to visit so more tourists will visit
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How does Terrorism and conflict contribute to the number of tourists in the UK?
Wars and terrorists threats mean people are less willing to visit affected area e.g. tourism fell sharply after london bombing on 7th July 2005
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How do Major Events contribute to the number of tourists in the UK?
This can attract huge number of tourists e.g. London 2012 Olympic games and Liverpool was European Capital of Culture in 2008 so 3.5 mil visited that had never been before
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What are the stages of the Tourist Area Life Cycle (Butler) Model?
Exploration, Involvement, Development, Consolidation, Stagnation, Rejuvenation or Decline
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Describe the Exploration stage
Small numbers of visitors are attracted to area e.g. by scenery or culture. Not many tourist facilities
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Describe the Involvement stage
Local people start providing facilities for the tourists, which attracts more visitors
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Describe the Development stage
More and more visitors visit as more facilities are built. Control of tourism in the area passes from locals to big companies
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Describe the Consolidation stage
Tourism still a big part of local economy, but tourist numbers beginning to level off
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Describe the Stagnation stage
Visitor numbers have peaked. Facilities no longer as good and tourists have negative impact on local environment, making area less attractive to visit.
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Describe the Rejuvenation or Decline stage
Rejuvenation - if area is rejuvenated, more visitors will visit as they will be attracted by new facilities Decline - fewer visitors visit, as area is less attractive, leads to decline of area as facilities shut or become run-down
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What are the economic impacts of Mass Tourism?
Positive - brings money into local economy, creates jobs Negative - much of profit made is kept by large companies rather than going to local economy
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What are the social impacts of Mass Tourism?
Positive - Improved roads, communications and infrastructure. Income from tourism can be reinvested in local projects, job increase keeps young in area. Negative - Tourism jobs often badly paid and seasonal, traffic congestion, behaviour of tourists
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What are the environmental impacts of Mass Tourism?
Positive - Income from tourism can be reinvested in protecting the environment Negative - Transport leads to greenhouse gas release, tourism can create litter and pollution, tourism can destroy natural habitats
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How can countries reduce the negative impacts of tourism?
Improving public transport, reducing congestion and pollution. Limiting the number of people visit sensitive environments e.g. coral reefs, and providing more bins
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How can areas that rely heavily on tourism maintain the number of tourists visiting?
Build new facilities or improve existing ones, reduce any tourist impacts that make area less attractive, advertise area to attract tourists, improve transport infrastructure, offer new activities to attract tourists that haven't been, make cheaper
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Why are tourists attracted to visit extreme environments?
Ideal for adventure holidays, many people enjoy element of risk and danger, some wildlife and scenery can only be seen in these areas
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Why is extreme tourism increasing?
Improvements in transport making it faster and easier, people want to see places like Antarctica before ice melts due to global warming, more people have disposable income so can afford to go
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Why is the presence of tourists in extreme environments a issue for environment and give an example
Ecosystems delicate, tourists can upset fragile balance e.g. in Himalayas, Deforestation, destroying habitats, causing more flooding, Footpath erosion can lead to landslides, toilets are poor so rivers become polluted by sewage
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What are the benefits of Ecotourism?
Environmental - locals encouraged to conserve environment, reduces packing and hunting, reduces fossil fuel use, waste disposed of carefully. Economic, more jobs. Benefits for locals, people have better incomes, helps fund community projects. Sustain
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Card 2

Front

Why are some destinations becoming more popular than they used to be?

Back

Improvements in transport (making it faster and easier), fact that countries in more unusual places like Middle East and Africa got better at marketing themselves as tourist attractions. Many countries invested in infrastructure for tourism- gd hotel

Card 3

Front

What are the main tourist destinations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why are Cities popular tourist destinations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why are Mountains popular tourist destinations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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