Topic 5 Key Words

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Biotic
An ecological factor that is part of the living environment of an organism. Biotic factors are determined by living organisms. E.g.predation and competition.
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Abiotic
An ecological factor that is part of the non-living or physical environment of an organism. E.g.Rainfall and Temperature
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Niche
The way an organism exploits its enviroment
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Habitat
Where an organism lives
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Edaphic
Any abiotic factors to do with soil E.g. pH
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Succession
The ecological process in which one community progressively changes into another.
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Climax Community
The different species of organisms that make up the final stage of an ecological succession.
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Photosynthesis
The process by which plants and certain other organisms are able to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrates using light energy. Although photosynthesis can be summarised in a simple equation: carbon dioxide + water --> glucose + oxygen, it is a muc
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Light-Dependent Reactions
The process by which ATP and reduced NADP are generated in photosynthesis using energy from light and hydrogen from photolysis of water. The waste product of this reaction is oxygen, which can either be used in respiration or released into the atmosp
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Light-Independent Reactions
The biochemical pathway in which carbon dioxide combines with ribulose bisphosphate and is converted into carbohydrate in photosynthesis. This pathway involves a cycle of reactions, the Calvin cycle, which eventually regenerates ribulose bisphosphate
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Phosphorylation
The addition of a phosphate group to a molecule. Cyclin-dependent kinases are enzymes that help to control the cell cycle. When phosphate is added to cyclin-dependent kinases, they change shape and become active. ADP is phosphorylated to make ATP.
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Photolysis
The process of splitting water using light energy to give oxygen, hydrogen ions and electrons. Photolysis occurs within the thylakoid space of the chloroplast. The hydrogen is involved in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. The electrons
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NPP (Net Primary Productivity)
The energy left to create biomass after respiration. Net Primary Productivity = Gross Primary Productivity – Respiration
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GPP (Gross Primary Productivity)
The rate at which energy is incorporated into organic molecules by an ecosystem. Some of these substances, such as glucose, are then broken down in respiration. Gross primary productivity = Net primary productivity + Respiration
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Trophic Level
The position of an organism in the food chain.
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Dendrochronology
Determination of the age of a piece of wood through the counting of its tree rings.
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Greenhouse Gas
Atmospheric gas that prevents infrared radiation escaping into space. Important greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide and methane.
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Natural Selection
A process in which individuals that are fitter (better adapted to their environment) are more likely to survive and pass on their genes to future generations. Natural selection drives evolutionary change.
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Reproductive Isolation
wo populations are described as being reproductively isolated when they are unable to breed with each other, or they produce offspring which fail to survive.
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Speciation
The formation of a new species. It is generally accepted that for a new species to arise, a group of individuals has to be isolated from the rest of the population. There will be different selection pressures acting on the two groups which will becom
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Carbon Cycle
he way in which the element carbon is cycled through an ecosystem.
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Biofuels
Fuels that are produced directly from living material or from the action of living organisms.
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Card 2

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An ecological factor that is part of the non-living or physical environment of an organism. E.g.Rainfall and Temperature

Back

Abiotic

Card 3

Front

The way an organism exploits its enviroment

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where an organism lives

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Any abiotic factors to do with soil E.g. pH

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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