Topic A GCSE Edexcel Psychology Quiz

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What is the retina?
light sensitive layer at the back of the eye made up of nerve cells called rods and cones
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Where are rods found?
around the edge of the retina
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What type of light sensitive cells can detect colour?
cones
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What does the optic nerve do?
carries information from the retina to the brain
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What is the blind spot?
area of the retina with no rods and cones so light can't be detected
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What is the optic chiasma
the cross-shape where information from the left and right eye cross over to pass into the opposite sides of the visual cortex in the brain
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What is the visual cortex?
the area at the back of the brain which interprets visual information
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What is superimposition?
a partly hidden object must be further away than the object covering it
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What is relative size?
smaller objects are perceived as being further away than larger ones
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What is linear perspective?
parallel lines appear to converge in the distance
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What is stereopsis?
greater the distance between the view seen by the left eye and the right eye, the closer the viewer is looking
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What is texture gradient?
An area with a detailed pattern is perceived as nearer than one with less detail
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What is height in the plane?
objects closer to the horizon are perceived to be more distant than ones further below or above the horizon
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What is size constancy
we perceive an object as the same size even when its distance from us changes
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What are the 5 Gestalt laws?
figure-ground, proximity, similarity, continuity, closure
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What is figure-ground?
we tend to separate scenes into objects and their surroundings
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What is proximity?
we tend to group together things which are close together
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What is similarity?
things which look alike are seen as a group
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What is continuity?
we link things together that appear to form a broken line
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What is closure?
we tend to fill in gaps to make incomplete things seem whole
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What is a fiction illusion?
an illusion caused when a figure is perceived even through it isn't present in the stimulus
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What is a distortion illusion?
where our perception is deceived by one aspect of the stimulus
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What is an ambiguous figure illusion?
an illusion with two possible interpretations where only one can be seen at a time
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What type of illusion is the ponzo illusion?
distortion
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What type of illusion is the necker cube?
ambiguous figure
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What type of illusion is the kanizsa triangle?
fiction
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How can gestalt's theory explain the kanizsa triangle fiction illusion
using closure, we complete the lines to create a triangle. The new triangle becomes the figure and the actual objects become the ground
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How can gestalt's theory explain the leeper's lady ambiguous figure illusion
we normally separate figure and ground because figures are more detailed but in leeper's lady we can't tell whether the lump is a wart on her nose or her nose as she turns away
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Give 2 weaknesses to gestalt's theory
doesn' explain why we don't see a 6 pointed star in the kanisza triangle illusion due to closure and doesn't explain distortion illusions like ponzo
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What is gregory's theory of illusions?
we wrongly apply size constancy and monocular depth cues to 2D images and wrongly scale an object up if it seems far away and down if its close
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Give two strengths to gregory's theory
good explanation for distortion and fiction illusions
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Give 2 weaknesses to Gregory's theory
can't explain some versions of the muller-lyer illusion or some ambiguous figure illusions like rubins vase
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How can Gregory's theory explain the ponzo distortion illusion?
due to linear perspective we scale the top line up as it appears further away and the bottom line down as it looks closer
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How can Gregory's theory explain the kanizsa triangle fiction illusion?
we perceive the white triangle as being closer to us than the black shapes and on top of them due to superimposition
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What is a schema?
framework of knowledge about something that can affect our perception and help us organise info and recall what we've seen
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What is a perceptual set?
tendency to notice some things more than others caused by experience, context or expectations
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What was the Brewer and Treyans study (1981)?
ppts taken to room they were told was an office, then asked to recall everything they remember about the 1st room
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What were the results of the study?
9/30 ppts said they recalled books though there were none there. few remembered the skull, wine or picnic hamper
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What did this suggest?
context can produce expectations of what we think will be in a certain situation even if its not there- a schema
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What was the aim of the Palmer study(1975)
to see if context would affect perception
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What was the procedure of the Palmer study?
64 participants shown different contexts in a lab experiment and number of correctly identified objects counted
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What was the independent variable
appropriate, inappropriate (similar object), inappropriate (different object), no context
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What were the results?
ppts correctly identified the most objects after seeing an appropriate context and the least after seeing inappropriate context
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What is the conclusion?
expectations affect perception
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What are two strengths?
controlled how long ppts saw the context and objects (2 seconds) and given clear instructions
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What are two weaknesses?
2 people forgot glasses so their data missing- smaller sample and telling ppts what they were doing could have caused them to try harder in certain conditions than others
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What was the Carmichael study (1932)
95 ppts split into 2 groups and a control of 9. lab experiment. shown 12 pictures and experimenter said what they resembled (different for 2 groups). ppts asked to draw what they'd seen and drawing compared to original
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What was the aim of the carmichael study?
to find out whether words shown with pictures would affect the way the pictures were remembered.
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What were the findings?
'list 1' group, 73% of the drawings resembled the word given. 'list 2' group, 74% did. control group who had not heard any words only 45% resembled either one of the words.
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What was the conclusion?
memory for pictures is reconstructed. The verbal labels given to the image affects the recall because the memory of the word alters the way the picture is represented.
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What are the strengths?
control group of 9 to compare with and each ppt given 12 pics so lots of data collected
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What are the weaknesses?
in real life, objects aren;t as ambiguous as drawings so not applicable to real life and extent to which pictures resemble label is subjective
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What was the Allport and Postman study (1947)
picture of black man in suit and white man with razor blade shown. ppts reported it was the black man holding the razor
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How does this support the idea of a schema?
ppts back then exposed to racism in media so had expectation that black people violent. schema would have been in memory so when asked to reconstruct pic they had racially biased expectation
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What was the aim of the Bartlett study (1932)
to investigate how information changes with each reproduction and why
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What was the Bartlett study?
repeated measure design 20 ppts read war of the ghosts and asked to recall. Serial reproduction-ppts reproduce story on paper to another and so on. Repeated-one ppt reproduces all 7 reproductions over time intervals
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What were the findings?
details lost, order of events same, events made more familiar and simplified, things added to make sense
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What was the conclusion?
people reconstructed the stories using their schema as memory is affected by existing knowledge
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What are the strengths?
both tasks done many times to gather lots of data and other stories were later used to show generalisable to other stories
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What are the weaknesses?
unfamiliar story used- not certain that changes would be the same with familiar stories and time delays wildly different in the repeated reproduction so changes can't be compared with one another
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where are rods found?

Back

around the edge of the retina

Card 3

Front

What type of light sensitive cells can detect colour?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the optic nerve do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the blind spot?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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