The Protectorate of Somerset 1547-1549 Part 1

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What had happened to Henry's health in the last years of his reign?
Health had deteriorated rapidly
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What had it become obvious would happen on Henry's death?
The throne would be passed to a minor
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When did Henry die?
January 28th 1547
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What was the cause of death of Henry VIII?
Probably of kidney and liver failure aggravated by obesity
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Why was Henry VIII's death kept secret for 3 days?
Factional struggle victors were manipulating the contents of his will
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What did Henry VIII leave instructions for?
A Regency Council of a 16 men to rule equally until Edward reached majority
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When did Henry say that Edward would reach age to rule?
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Who was Edward Seymour?
Earl of Hertford, Edward VI's uncle
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Who ruled as Lord Protector until 1549?
Edward Seymour
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What had happened even before Henry's burial?
His orders disregarded and legacy in tatters
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What was Henry's legacy to his country?
Minority government and economy devastated by costly wars
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What was one positive thing that Henry left Edward?
A Church free of papal interference and with fluidity to follow traditional/reformist religious policy
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Why was Henry's will written and revised?
To prevent any disputes about succession and provide for care of his son during minority
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What would happen, according to Henry's will, if Edward would die without heirs?
The crown would pass to Henry's children by "Queen Catharine, or any future wife"
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What would happen if (as Henry was dying!) no heirs were produced by Queen Catherine and Edward was dead w/ no heirs?
"In default, to his daughter Mary and the heirs of her body"
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What was the condition for Mary to succeed, according to Henry's will?
"upon condition that she shall not marry without the written and sealed consent of a majority of the surviving members of the Privy Council appointed to him to his son Edward"
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Who followed Mary in Henry's will on order of succession?
"in default, to his daughter Elizabeth upon like condition"
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Who followed Elizabeth in the succession according to Henry's will?
The heirs of Lady Frances and then to the heirs of Lady Frances' sister Lady Eleanor
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Who was Lady Frances?
Daughter of Mary Tudor and Charles Brandon
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What did the terms of succession in Henry's will mean?
If Mary and Elizabeth did not observe the conditions laid out then they would forfeit the right to succeed.
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What was the practical order of the succession on Henry's death?
Edward, Mary then Elizabeth
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What was somewhat surprising about the inclusion of Mary and Elizabeth in the succession in Henry's will?
They had been made illegitimate by the succession acts of 1534 and 1536
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When were Mary and Elizabeth returned to the succession but remained illegitimate ?
By the Third Succession Act
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Why were the claims of Mary Queen of Scots excluded?
Henry wished to preserve the royal supremacy and prevent rise of Catholicism
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What was the relationship between Henry VIII and Mary, Queen of Scots?
She was the infant daughter of James V, Henry's nephew
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Why did Henry exclude the Howard faction from role in anticipated regency?
Feared that they would guide the country back to Catholicism, needed to preserve royal supremacy
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What was the result of the exclusion of Mary, Queen of Scots and exclusion of role of Howard faction?
Balance of power swung towards the Seymours, uncles to the prince and moderate in religion
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What did the 1536 Succession Act do?
Empower the King by his will to appoint guardians in event his heir was the minor
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When was Henry's last will signed?
30th December 1546
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What was the role of the 16 executors of the will supposed to be?
To form Privy Council and have "the government" of Edward and the country until his majority
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What were twelve members chosen to be in Henry's will?
Of the council and to assist the executor-councillors when called on.
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What were most of the sixteen Privy Council members from Henry's will from but not all?
Henry's existing Privy Council
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What were two of the sixteen Privy Councillors under Henry's will members of?
Henry's Privy Chamber
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What do some believe about the religious leanings of Denny and Herbert?
Supposedly radical religious leanings
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What was the role of Sir Anthony Denny
Controlled Henry's dry stamp
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Who were the two of the Regency Council members who had been in Henry's Privy Chamber?
Sir Anthony Denny and Sir William Herbert
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What did Starkey claim had happened by the end of 1546?
Henry was more or less cut off from contact with anyone but the staff of hIs Privy Chamber
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What was significant about the time when the final shaping of the list of executors was made?
Was made when Gardiner and Norfolk in disgrace
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When is the first clear date of discussion of the executors just before signing of final will?
26th December 1546 when Paget later testified that Henry, having been ill, asked to see 1544 will and asked for Gardiner's name to be removed
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What can Henry's last will be seen as having?A
A lack of full religious balance
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Why is it debatable that Henry's last will lacked religious balance?
When full list examined is not fundamentally out of character with known religious inclinations of Henry or his judgement of the capabilities of those around him
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Was the fact that someone was to act as Protector of the realm unusual?
No, similar measures in minorities in 1422 and 1483
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What was the role of Edward Seymour intended to be in the Regency Council of 16?
He and his supporters would share power and run government, to be rewarded with titles and lands confiscated from the Howards
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Were key provisions in Henry's will disregarded before his death announced?
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What was England's government based on?
Rule by single person (monarch) together with Council and Parliamnet
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Why is it likely that the Regency Council never would have worked?
England's government not based on committee rule
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What did Seymour and his ally/secretary Paget do?
Kept the death secret while gathering support for Somerset as leader of Council
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What was significant about Paget?
He had custody of the will
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When did Seymour and Paget reveal that Henry was dead?
1st February when summoned members of nobility and higher clergy to Tower and also announced Edward Seymour as leader of Council
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What was the title of Hertford announced to be?
Lord Protector
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What title was Edward Seymour given?
Duke of Somerset
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Why was the choice of Somerset not unwelcome?
Had proved himself as accomplished military leader in Scotland in Henry's final years and rallied support
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There was some opposition to Somerset as leader of the council. Why was this?
Factionalism remained rife
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When was Hertford elected as Lord Protector?
31st January
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When was Hertford's position formalised when young king and 13 executors signed commission giving him sovereign authority until Edward 18?
4th February
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How did Somerset gain power?
Paget, wording of will, Denny and Herbert, crown land
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Somerset's Rise to Power: Paget
Acted to help him, later reminded the protector of what he promised "before the breath was out" of Henry
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Somerset's Rise to Power: Henry's will
Provided majority of executosr could "devyse and ordeyn" what thought best for king and realm
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What no doubt encouraged executors in decision to follow Somerset's idea?
Promise of land and titles
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Somerset's Rise to Power: Denny and Herbert
Few days after decision to make Seymour protector they formally recorded for council what they 'remembered' of what Henry had 'forgotten' to put in his will
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Somerset's Rise to Power: Crown LAND
Crown land worth £3200 per year, mostly from ex-Howard lands distributed
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What did almost all executors receive?
A handout of crown lands
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What did Thomas Seymour receive though he was only an assistant to the executors?
Land worth £500 per year from the King's 'unwritten will', in February 1547 made member of Privy Council and was appointed Lord Admiral
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What did Thomas Seymour demand as he was disappointed he had not been appointed to Regency Council?
The powerful role of governorship of the King's person
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Who encouraged Thomas Seymour in his claim to govern the King?
John Dudley, Earl of Warwick
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How did Somerset placate his brother?
Through place on Council and appointment as Lord Admiral
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How did Thomas Seymour overreach himself, leading to arrest then execution in March 1549?
Plotted to marry Princess Elizabeth in 1548
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What did Thomas Seymour unwisely do?
Sought Sir Thomas Wriothesley's support
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How did Wriothesley betray Thomas Seymour?
Denounced him and as a reward gained re-admission to Council
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What did Thomas Seymour tell the King? Thomas smuggled the King pocket money.
Told him Somerset was making him a "beggarly king" and urged him to remove the Protector within two years and "bear rule as other kings do" but Edward did not oblige
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When was Thomas Seymour arrested?
17th January 1549
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How many articles of high treason was Thomas Seymour charged with?
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What was the danger to the Lord Protector of Thomas Seymour?
Opponents coukld use his brother against him
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How was Thomas Seymour tried?
He was not tried, no trial! He was instead attainted in Parliament
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During Somerset's time in power how much of Crown's annual landed income given to private hands?
Around £20,000
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When were 'free gifts' of land predominantly given during Edward's reign?
In 1547 and then 1550 (Northumberland) when factional leaders needed to guarantee loyalty
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What did Somerset's ascendancy owe much to?
Cromwell's administrative reforms which made possible as previously there was higher dependence on the whims of the King and his helpers
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What had it become obvious would happen on Henry's death?


The throne would be passed to a minor

Card 3


When did Henry die?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What was the cause of death of Henry VIII?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why was Henry VIII's death kept secret for 3 days?


Preview of the front of card 5
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