The Body Senses

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What is the largest sense organ?
The skin.
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What type of receptors and channels does touch use?
Mechanoreceptors with stretch-gated ion channels.
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What type of receptor is Merkel's disc?
Only detects nearby changes in the skin, have a tonic response that continues for the duration of the stimulus, used to detect texture.
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What type of receptor is Meissener's corpuscle?
Only detects nearby changes in the skin, have a phasic response only during onset/ offset of stimulus, used to detect vibration.
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What type of receptor is the Pacinian corpuscle?
Detects changes over wide areas as they are deep, have a phasic response only during onset/ offset of the stimulus, used to detect initial contact.
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What type of receptor is Ruffini's ending?
Detects changes over wide areas as they are deep, have a tonic response that continues for the duration of the stimulus, used to detect sustained contact.
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Where are the cell bodies of mechanoreceptors located?
By the spinal cord.
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Where does the neocortex develop out from?
The mouth and tongue area of the somatosensory cortex.
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How are fast and slow adapting signals arranged in the cortex?
They are segregated.
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What is the receptive field of a neuron?
The area over which a stimulus will affect the neuron's overall firing rate. Firing rate decreases as you move from the center.
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Where are receptive fields small and why?
On the hands and the face as there is a high density of touch receptors there.
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What is proprioception?
Sensing one's own body.
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What is sensing state of muscles used to do?
Control movement.
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How does the body detect changes in muscle length?
Stretch reflexes triggered by receptors.
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What are the two families of stretch receptors in muscles?
One type provides information about movement of limb by rapidly adapting, the other provides information about position of limbs by having a sustained response.
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What do stretch receptors within tendons detect?
Tension in the muscles, providing information about force applied to the muscles.
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Where do reflex arcs send information?
Only as far as the base of the spinal cord.
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How many synapses does information to the cortex encounter?
One, where it changes to the contralateral side.
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What other area is the proprioceptive area of the brain closest to?
The motor cortex.
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What is nociception?
Senses dangerous contact.
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What is the process of injury-sensitive pain receptors?
Damaged cells release substances that excite free nerve ending that function as nociceptors ---> Action potentials generated in periphery can reflexively excite blood vessels to produce inflammation --
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*CONTINUED*
-> Information enters through dorsal root and synapses on neurons in dorsal horn ---> Pain fibres release glutamate and a substance P in the spinal cord ---> Dorsal horn cells send information across the midline and up to the thalamus.
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What are the two classes of fibres that carry pain?
Aδ are sensitive to mechanical stimulation and heat and are myelinated. C are sensitive to mechanical stimulation, heat, cold and chemical and are unmyelinated.
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Where is pain information sent?
To many target areas in the brain. Targets process information in different ways to stop pain.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What type of receptors and channels does touch use?

Back

Mechanoreceptors with stretch-gated ion channels.

Card 3

Front

What type of receptor is Merkel's disc?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What type of receptor is Meissener's corpuscle?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What type of receptor is the Pacinian corpuscle?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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