The Science of Emotion - emotion is social

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1. Facial Feedback Hypothesis
This hypothesis states that people’s facial activity influences their affective response.
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1. Facial Feedback Hypothesis - two possible mechanisms
Cognitive: People make inferences about what they are feeling based on their facial expression. Physiological: The affective response can occur in the absence of cognitive interpretation.
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1. Strack et al (1988) - used the pen experiment in two studies to support ....
FFH without cognition: Holding a pen with one’s teeth requires using the zygomaticus major or risorius muscles that are used in smiling; whereas holding it by the lips inhibits the use of those muscles.
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1. Strack et al (1988) - cover story
was that the pen exercise was being tried for a future study of psychomotor coordination.
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1. Strack et al (1988) - findings
Participants more amused by cartoons when holding pen with teeth (i.e. smiling), and less amused when holding pen by lips. Control condition involved holding pen in non-dominant hand. Shown for amusement (affective) but not funniness (cognitive).
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1. Strack et al (1988) - Did not work when pen was held only at time of ....
making judgement; in fact, there was a contrast effect. So it was the experience of the emotional stimulus, and not just the cognitive judgment that was affected.
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1. Wagenmakers et al., 2016
In relation to Strack et al (1988) - Study is widely cited so registered replication conducted. 17 independent replications did not find the effect. However 20 studies have found the effect. FFH not necessarily invalid: May require cognition.
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1. So what has FFH got to do with transfer of emotion?
It is the second of two components required for primitive emotion contagion. The first component is motor mimicry.
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1. Maranon, 1950
Emotion can be produced by simply seeing in another individual the expressive phenomena, the gestures of emotion
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1. Friedman & Riggio (1982) - method
Asked groups of 3 participants to sit facing each other in silence for two minutes. Pre-tested so that one participant scored high and two scored low on the Affective Communication Test (which measures charisma).
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1. Friedman & Riggio (1982) - findings
Found that the unexpressives changed their mood more than the expressives, and their mood changed to look more like the expressives’ initial mood.
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1. Chartrand & Bargh, 1999
Motor mimicry - Emotions communicated through unintentional imitation of expressive gestures, in a process known as “motor mimicry”
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1. Motor mimicry followed by...
facial feedback results in emotion contagion i.e. The observer experiences the same emotion as the person observed.
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1. Chartrand & Bargh, 1999
Motor mimicry may be part of a more general perception-behavior link in which perceiving behavior triggers the same action codes in the observer
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1. Neumann & Strack (2000)
Motor mimicry - demonstrated that simply listening to emotional tone in a voice was sufficient to induce a congruent emotion.
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1. What does emotion contagion do?
Enables congruent emotions to spread from person to person.
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1. Hazy & Boyatzis
Function of contagion? Engenders emotional understanding and identification with others. Provides a proto-organizing state that enables or prevents cooperative responses.
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1. Bavelas et al., 1986
The main feature of motor mimicry is that the observer's overt motor response is appropriate not to their own situation but to the situation of the person they are observing
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1. Hatfield et al., 1993
Emotion contagion can be defined as the tendency to automatically mimic another person's postures, expressions, vocalisations, and movements
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1. Emotion Contagion occurs through two types of process, which can act in tandem:
Reactive processes and inferential processes
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1. Emotion Contagion occurs through two types of process, which can act in tandem - reactive processes
These occur automatically without awareness. We have already covered one – known as ‘primitive emotional contagion’ (Hatfield, Cacioppo & Rapson, 1994).
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1. Emotion Contagion occurs through two types of process, which can act in tandem - inferential processes
These occur consciously, for example by appraisal of other people’s motives or by social comparison. e.g., “my mates seem happy, perhaps I am too”.
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1. Joiner (1994)
dyad - showed that individuals living with a depressed roommate were more likely to become depressed themselves.
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1. Totterdell et al. (2004) - organisation
examined the spread of affect in employee networks in 2 organizations.The affect of two employees was more related if they were connected in the network.An employee’s affect could be predicted from the weighted affect of everyone else in the network
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1. Fowler & Christakis (2008)
Community - used a 20-yr community study of 4000 people to show that people’s happiness was related to the happiness of the people to whom they were connected, even when those connections were indirect (i.e. via another person).
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1. Kramer, Guillory, & Hancock (2014) - online networks - method
provided “experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks” by manipulating the emotional content in people’s facebook news feed. Raised ethical issues.
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1. Kramer, Guillory, & Hancock (2014) - online networks - findings
When positive expression was reduced, people produced fewer positive posts; when negative expression was reduced they produced fewer negative posts. So emotions expressed by others influence people’s emotions, and interaction is not required for this
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1. Coviello et al. (2014) - online networks - method/findings
data from millions of Facebook users to show that rainfall not only influenced the emotional content of user’s status messages(direct)but also affected the emotion content of the status messages of friends in cities where it was not raining (indirect
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1. Coviello et al. (2014) - online networks - findings
1-2 people were indirectly affected for every one person directly affected by weather.
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1. Porath & Erez, 2009
Indirect effects - Vicarious affect. Exposure to unpleasant emotions can induce similar feelings so onlookers to social interactions can be affected by the emotions they witness
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1. Eisenkraft & Elfenbein (2010)
affective presence-found that individuals are almost as consistent in the emotions that they elicit in others (trait affective presence) as they are in the emotions that they experience themselves (trait affect), even after controlling for contagion.
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1. Niven, Totterdell, & Holman, 2009
Interpersonal Regulation - Interpersonal emotion regulation. Behaviours that change how someone else feels (e.g., praise, helping, criticism, avoiding)
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1. Elfenbein, 2015
Affective process theory of affective linkage - Identified 10 mechanisms by which affect can be linked.
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1. Barsade (2002) - method
One individual can affect the mood of a group - The ripple effect - demonstrated that a confederate trained to express particular emotions when planted in a group could bring the mood of the other group members into line with the emotions expressed.
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1. Barsade (2002) - found
Groups who were induced into a pleasant mood showed greater cooperation and less conflict on a decision-making task.
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1. Sy, Cote & Saavedra (2005)
One individual can affect the mood of a group - The ripple effect - showed that individuals’ moods changed in synchrony with the mood of their team leader.
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1. The moods of individuals within a group can become linked:
Studies of work teams (Totterdell et al., 1998; Ilies, Wagner & Morgeson, 2007) and sport teams (Totterdell, 2000) have shown that individuals’ moods can change in synchrony with the collective mood of their teammates.
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1. The moods of individuals within a group can become linked. This linkage occurs...
independently of shared events, and it can affect how the individual performs.
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1. George, 1990 - When the mood of the individuals within a group is sufficiently...
consistent (i.e. they all have similar mood), the group can be said to have an “affective tone”
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1. George, 1990 - Under such circumstances the mood of the group can be treated as a ...
variable in its own right, and may have unique properties.
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1. Summary - Emotion is not just personal ...
it depends on social processes, as well as physiological and cognitive processes.
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1. Summary - Emotion is not just local ....
it can affect people who are one step (or more) removed from us, and it can affect bystanders.
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1. Summary - Emotion is not just individual ...
it can be a property of a group.
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1. Summary - Emotion has interpersonal functions....
one of which may be to help coordinate activity.
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Topics in this lecture
1 - How emotion is transmitted from person to person. 2 - The social functions of emotion. 3 - emotion in relationships. 4 - social causes and consequences of emotion
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2. Parkinson (1996)
argued that: Many of the causes of emotion are interpersonally, institutionally or culturally defined. Emotions serve interpersonal and cultural functions. Emotions are communicative, rather than internal and reactive
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2. Parkinson (1996) - Cognitive and physiological approaches need supplementing or supplanting by ....
social psychological analysis.
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2. Fridlund, 1991
Emotional expressions increase when there is an audience, even if that audience is imagined (Fridlund, 1991) i.e. they are communicative, not reactive.
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2. Kemper, 1978
Emotions “... can result from real, anticipated, imagined or recollected outcomes of social relationships” (Kemper, 1978). So the audience can be internalized.
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2. van Kleef, 2009
Emotions as Social Information Model.
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2. van Kleef, 2009 - emotions regulate...
social interactions by triggering affective reactions and inferences in observers. These can converge or compete.
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2. van Kleef, 2009 - effectiveness of this depends on...
observer’s information processing (e.g. motivation) and relational factors (e.g. appropriateness of expression).
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2. Oatley, 2004c
With emotions, we make commitments to the relationship for which the emotion sets the frame
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2. Clark et al., 2004
Emotions communicate our goals to others, and others can then respond to them
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2. Review by Rimé (2009)
The impulse to share emotions is strong. People report about one episode per day being shared with them (primary sharing), and share about 75% of these (secondary sharing). More intense episodes are more likely to be shared.
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2. Review by Rimé (2009) - but sharing emotion does not seem to....
reduce the impact of the emotion and can even heighten it by reactivating memory of the associated events. Recovery requires a socio-cognitive, not a socio-affective response.
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3, Oatley et al, 2006
propose that there are 3 main types of social motivation, and that emotions move us in relation to these: Attachment (protection and care). Affiliation (warmth; kindness; friendship) Assertion (power; motivation to rise in hierarchy)
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3. e.g. Shaver et al., 1987
Emotion in close relationships (based on attachment/affiliative motives): Love often nominated as a prototypical emotion
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3. Bowlby, 1979
Emotion in close relationships (based on attachment/affiliative motives) - Adult love may be built on template of infant attachment (Bowlby, 1979); e.g. Interest in affection may depend on being parental object of affection
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3. Gottman & Levenson (2000) - method
studied 79 married partners discussing a conflict, neutral and pleasant event in their relationship.
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3. Gottman & Levenson (2000) - found
Four most damaging behaviours were: criticism, defensiveness, stonewalling, and contempt. Use of these, especially by women, during discussion of conflict predicted whether couples would be divorced 17 yr later with 93% accuracy.
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3. Gottman & Levenson (2000) - contempt was most...
toxic, because it diminishes the partner (as does criticism).
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3. Gottman & Levenson (2000) - Defensiveness and stonewalling block ....
resolution, and are more destructive to relationships when done by men.
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3. McNulty, 2010
Forgiveness in close relationships - Less forgiveness may be better for maintaining the satisfaction of couples with problems, even though it is associated with negative emotions
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3. Averill (1982)
Anger in close relationships - found that anger can sometimes be beneficial because it can readjust the relationship when one person feels wronged.
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3. Tiedens, 2000
Anger in assertive relationships - Associated with power: high status often attributed to displays of anger
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3. Overbeck et al., 2010
Anger in assertive relationships - Powerful negotiators seem to benefit from anger in negotiations
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3. Jäger et al., 2015
Anger in assertive relationships - However, although people negotiating with an angry opponent concede more, angry negotiators achieve less successful outcomes
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3. Fischer & Manstead, 2000
Anger in assertive relationships-Gender expectations(Fischer&Manstead, 2000):Greater expectation for men to display anger,pride & contempt (associated with assertiveness), and for women to display happiness and fear (associated with affiliation)
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4. Baumeister et al (2001),
Bad is stronger than good - According to Baumeister et al (2001), on average a bad event has a much greater effect on how people feel than a good event.
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4. Fredrickson et al (2000)
The undoing effect of positive emotion: Fredrickson et al (2000) showed that positive emotions undo the aftereffects of negative emotions.
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4. Fredrickson, 2013
In relation to Fredrickson et al (2000) - Positivity ratio: ‘flourishing’ is promoted when positive experiences exceed negative experiences but only up to a point
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4. Tice et al (2001)
Distress and behaviour - showed that people prioritise immediate gratification when distressed. i.e. unpleasant emotion causes a shift in behaviour (e.g. people will eat more cookies when they start to feel sad).
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4. Manucia, Baumann & Cialdini, 1984
However, when people are led to believe that their moods are frozen they stop pursuing behaviours that are associated with those moods(e.g., don’t help when in a sad mood&don’t aggress when in an angry mood)So perhaps emotions don't cause the behavio
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4. Baumeister et al. (2007)
Emotion as a Feedback System - proposed that emotional outcomes are used as feedback to guide future behaviour. In this view, emotions are rarely the immediate cause of behaviour, instead behaviour is used to pursue or avoid anticipated emotions.
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4. Baumeister et al. (2007)
Emotion as a Feedback System - proposed that emotional outcomes are used as feedback to guide future behaviour. In this view, emotions are rarely the immediate cause of behaviour, instead behaviour is used to pursue or avoid anticipated emotions.
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4. Baumeister et al. (2007) - model
Time 2 choice point -> mentally simulate behavioural options -> memory of behaviour and its outcome at time 1 -> affective residue/if-then rules -> anticipated emotional outcomes of simulated options ->select option based on desired emotional outcome
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***Shaver et al (1988)***
Suggest that love in adults depends on 3 systems which are attachment, caregiving for infants by parents &the sexual relating of reproduction. They propose that attachment and caregiving experiences are transferred from infancy to adult relationships
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***Buss, 1994***
Attachment-related emotions are sensitive to disruptions to the relationship.E.g., jealousy is linked to male protection&is triggered by cues of potential threats to relationship,e.g. the mate possibly being sexually/emotionally involved with another
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1. Facial Feedback Hypothesis - two possible mechanisms

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Cognitive: People make inferences about what they are feeling based on their facial expression. Physiological: The affective response can occur in the absence of cognitive interpretation.

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